Monday, September 30, 2019
Light Light intensity can be measured both physically measured for example with a LICOR light meter or a QSL (quantum scalar irradiance) meter. Luminous intensity can be measured subjectively measured with eg. a foot-candle meter, a type of photographic exposure meter. Intensity-watts rn-2 or einsteins m-2sec-1 Luminosity Units include candles, lumens, footcandles and lux. Temperature Temperature is measured using a thermometer. It's also a measure of how fast the atoms and molecules of a substance are moving. The units of measure are degrees on the Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin scales. Humidity Hygrometers may be designed for indoor or outdoor use (or both). Analog hygrometers use a moisture-sensitive material that is attached to a coil spring. The spring controls a needle on an easy-to-read circular dial. Analog hygrometers are often part of a durable, weather-resistant device that also includes a thermometer. Digital hygrometers determine the relative humidity by using a sensor to monitor an electric current that is affected by moisture levels. Relative humidity, expressed as a percent. Salinity Salinity is often measured by measuring how well electricity travels through the water. This property of water is called conductivity. Water that has dissolved salt in it will conduct electricity better than water with no dissolved salt.Handheld Refractometer /Hydrometer /Conductivity Meter expressed in parts per million(ppm) O2 concentration Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive method for monitoring a person's O2 saturation. Or Gas sensor used. pO2 CO2 concentration Use a sensor connected to a PC via an arduino board. pCO2 Wind Wind speed is now commonly measured with an anemometer but can also be classified using the older Beaufort scale which is based on people's observation of specifically definedwind effects. Knot FactorÃ¢â¬â Light Light is important to both animals and plants as it is the main source of living organisms energy on earth. It takes part in photosynthesis which provides energy to both animals and plants, required for growth, movement and survival. Plants need to grow to be used as a food source for animals. Light is also important for animals vision, without light we would not be able to see which would hamper movement and many senses. Humans also required sunlight for vitamin D. Light is also needed for warmth. FactorÃ¢â¬â Temperature Temperature is a major determining factor of global climate patterns. It affects the life cycles of plants and animals, influences weather and tides, and controls the freeze and thaw of the polar ice caps. A small change in average temperature can have powerful effects on the environment worldwide and can determine if a certain species has a suitable habitat for survival. Temperature also affects the rate of important reactions, it effects enzymes and many other chemicals and their efficiency. Factor-Humidity Humidity drives most of the observable weather phenomena starting with clouds via fog, rain to storms and finally to such dramatic weather phenomena as hurricanes. It is not possible to forecast the weather exactly without precise knowledge of humidity in all the layers of the atmosphere. Humidity affects chemical reactions, the environment of animals and plants. FactorÃ¢â¬â Salinity Ocean salinity plays key roles in the global hydrological cycle, ocean circulation and in regulating Earth's climate. Today's scientists know that Earth's water cycle is dominated by exchanges between the ocean and atmosphere, with sea surface salinity (SSS) varying because of freshwater input and output, via the processes of evaporation and precipitation. FactorÃ¢â¬â O2 Concentration plant cells need oxygen to live, because without oxygen they can't perform aerobic respiration to produce co2 (respiration is the process of breaking down food to get energy). Similarly animals need o2 to respire and live, breath and produce energy. O2 concentration also effects habitats as different species require different levels of o2. FactorÃ¢â¬â CO2 Concentration Without CO2 the life of photosynthetic organisms and animals would be impossible, given that CO2 provides the basis for the synthesis of organic compounds that provide nutrients for plants and animals. We also know CO2 is toxic to humans therefore affects their health. However plants need co2 for energy. Factor-Wind Wind effects seed dispersal and aids the production of pollen needed for pollination which is important because it leads to the production of fruits we can eat, and seeds that will create more plants. Wind also effects the moisture surrounding guard cells and the gas and water exchange in plants and animals.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Outline current policies and legislation relating to children and how these affect your practice Essay
First of all what is the difference between Ã¢â¬Å"policy and legislationÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"A policy is a document that outlines what a government is going to do and what it can achieve for the society as a whole. It also outlines any and all methods and principles that the government or any entity, for that matter, will use to achieve its directive. Legislation is another term meaning statutory law. These laws have been enacted by a legislature or the governing body of a country. Legislation can also mean the process of making the law.Ã¢â¬ Before being able to take a position held in a school I would have to be DBS Disclosure and Barring Services which are replaced the CRB check**. This is a regulation within the law which will be looking at an individuals criminal history ranging from convictions, cautions down to warnings. In the Protection of Children Act 1999 it states that all adults working with children must be DBS checked. Any person who is found to have their name on this l ist with a criminal offense regarding children will not be allowed to work within this area. I would have to work under the law of the Children Act 2004 which is there to make sure the welfare and health of the child is protected, this also includes the Every Child Matters in which all children deserve and should expect the levels of care and adhere to this. This also includes in this green paper allowing all services to share information on children that they have concerns over, this is to help all the services have a better understanding and have the knowledge of that particular childs risk history so to evaluate what the next appropriate step is to take for this particular child.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Using Ownership Incentives in China Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1
Using Ownership Incentives in China - Case Study Example roach, the CEO is well placed in motivating the workers to be responsible and work hard considering that their own success is determined by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success. Additionally, the use of this approach is important in demonstrating to the employees that the company values all stakeholders in it equally, and gives similar treatment to all its employees. As observed in the historical practices in China, however, there could be numerous challenges in implementing this considering that the workforce in China could possibly perceive such approaches by the CEO as forcing the American operational culture onto them, while overlooking the native populationÃ¢â¬â¢s values. Another way of exporting the ownership culture to the Chinese population could involve sticking with the limiting stock ownership to the initial American team. By doing this, the CEO would be expected to formulate a different ownership culture and payment for the China-based team. However, this practice could prove challenging, especially if some of the staff in China could wish to have stock ownership in the company (Beyster and Economy 24). It could also be practical if the CEO exported the culture of ownership to China by creation of different structures of equity based on the different regions of operation. For instance, the ownership culture operations in China could be executed using different optimized methods of payment that are dependent on the region of operation and the taxation policy involved. Exporting the ownership culture to the Chinese employees could also be accomplished by sending expatriates from the US to China for the purpose of introducing the system, as well as offering the required training to the Chinese staff. The use of this approach could, however, experience culture shock for the foreign employees due to their lack of knowledge of the business traditions of the Chinese community. Ben FreedÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to offer the Chinese team similar company ownership as the Silicon Valley
Friday, September 27, 2019
Nuclear power is bad ( this is my position them) - Essay Example Here the question comes forward whether there are enough good people around this world to rein nuclear power the betterment of humanity. In this regard Einstein says, Ã¢â¬Å"The splitting of the atom has changed everything save our modes of thinking, and thus we drift toward unparalleled catastropheÃ¢â¬ (Krieger). History itself asserts the negative aspects of human being. During the horror of the Second World War Humanity witnessed the destructive force of nuclear weapons with her utmost fear and pang. Even the famous scientist Einstein became remorseful Ã¢â¬âremembering its destruction- for inspiring the then US President Franklin Roosevelt to build nuclear weapons. A single Ã¢â¬Å"Fat manÃ¢â¬ - the bomb used against Japan- tolled about 67000 lives that died before they knew why they were dying. Another bomb Ã¢â¬ËLittle BoyÃ¢â¬â¢ tolled about 100000 of lives in another city of Japan. Since 1945 people of the world become aware of the curse of nuclear weapons that can put the lives of 600 billions of people of the world out at a blink of an eye. Peace-loving people raise their voice against this curse of Nuclear power. There is no doubt that nuclear power is the only violent power, which man has ever slaved. But as to its destructive force, it is certainly a curse for humanity. The document of Ã¢â¬Å"Russell-Einstein manifestoÃ¢â¬ begins with the line, Ã¢â¬Å"In the tragic situation that confronts humanity, we feel that scientists should assemble in conference to appraise the perils that have arisen as a result of the development of weapons of mass destruction, and to discuss a resolution in the spirit of the appended draftÃ¢â¬ (Krieger). These lines are sufficient to unveil the demonic face of nuclear power. There go controversies on whether nuclear power is a blessing or a curse. Though nuclear power has positive sides, its negative sides obviously outweigh them. When the world is panting
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Frontlines Black Money - Essay Example From the perspective of a high-end chauffeur, it then details the lavish expenditures that accompanied the lifestyles of the Saudi princes immediately after the arms deal was completed and how he was instructed to refer all expenses to BAE. It then discusses how the Foreign Corruption Practices (FCPA) was formed in the United States during the Carter administration and how it makes United States laws against bribery the most strict in the world. Later, because of competitive disadvantages American companies were experiencing, the international community created the OECD to make it a world-wide offense. Even with these policies intact, large companies, such as BAE and the German company Siemens still found ways to work around the system. It discusses the Department of JusticeÃ¢â¬â¢s (DOJ) 500 million dollar fine of KBR, a Halliburton subsidiary, for breaking United States anti-bribery laws. Eventually, a full scale investigation is launched by British investigators into the BAE scan dal and unearths a world-wide multi-billion dollar series of slush funds. An investigation is launched into BAE practices in Switzerland. Just as the investigation is supposed to unearth potent information, Prince Bandar visits with Tony Blair and informs him that if the investigation continues then the Saudis will stop cooperating with the British on anti-terrorism laws. This information, coupled with an apparent blackmail plot against the investigator, results in the investigation being dropped, with the Saudi connections to the United States being investigated further by the DOJ. The film ends on a somber note, concluding that the rules for the use of this Ã¢â¬Ëblack moneyÃ¢â¬â¢ are different for the large corporations -- who can get away with it -- and the small businesses that face OECD
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Newspapers and Television Media Forum Types - Essay Example The researcher states that there are immensely significant problems that both newspapers and television point out, and under the domains of the political regimes, the same become even more important. These touch upon the negativities that have marred the politics of the time, the constant developments happening for the sake of the masses, the inter-linkages and relationships that have cropped up every now and then amongst the political forces, and so on and so forth. The need is to understand how the newspapers and television have been able to cover just about everything that is of interest to the general audiences, who are the masses indeed. The element of exposing the political process is something that comes out in the open with the incorporation of the newspapers and television in the long run. What is even more necessary is an understanding that newspapers and television have been associated with finding out the details that no other avenue of life has been able to muster up. Th e element of persuasion attached to both newspapers and television is there because people depend on them for their credibility that they bring to the fore. Merely the fact that the news is present on the airwaves or in the print suggests that it has credibility which could be trusted upon and sought verification from the people who are in charge of the same. However, there are trust issues amongst the people from different cross-sections of life but more or less, the people do believe the written word and the news that are run on the television. Within a political campaign, the persuasion is a core basis of the work that the newspapers and television do. Both these media forums basically educate and inform the voters about the role of the political parties and the campaigns that are being done. What is even more significant is the fact that the element of persuasion gets an indelible impression on the minds and hearts of the people if they have read it in the newspapers or seen it for their own selves on the television. An element of belongingness seems to come along with what is there on the newspapers and on television. This is the reason why many political campaigns center on the usage of both newspapers and television for their political mileage as well as to reach select target audiences. This is one of the core reasons why immense success has been achieved within the related ranks under the discussion of persuasion leading up to the political campaigns and processes.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Why rebalancing could be a huge mistake Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words
Why rebalancing could be a huge mistake - Article Example Likewise, as a stock market rises, the commensurate rate at which bonds will be available will be reduced; furthering the investment potential of the individual investor. Conversely, the author also indicates that during a declining stock market, the investor should seek to purchase stocks; with the assumption that they will be available at a reduced rate. In order to facilitate this, bonds can of course be sold as they will necessarily command a higher premium during such a time. Essentially, the author found no indication that rebalancing reduced risk over the long term. Naturally, the broader question that deserves to be answered is whether or not rebalancing is capable of reducing risk over the short term; and to this the author indicates that it does indeed. However, for the investor that is interested in maintaining an appropriate ratio of stocks to bonds and maximizing their earnings over a period of time, specifically with an interest in retirement savings, the act of rebalancing more than once per year is not backed by the research. Essentially, the author provided three distinct levels of advice within the article in question. The first of these is with respect to rebalancing a maximum of once per year. Secondly, the author indicates that subsequent rebalance is of a portfolio present diminishing returns of the long run; however they are capable of providing short-term benefits that is in fact the approach that the investor wishes to take. Finally, the author indicates that the long-standing tradition of understanding long-term investments as paramount to short-term gains is something that should be recognized with respect to the issue of rebalancing and whether or not stocks and bonds should be purchased for reconsidered during a particular market trend. Naturally, the desire to seek to avail oneself available opportunity encourages
Monday, September 23, 2019
The Olympic Games will be held in Britain this summer. Is this all good news What might be the objections to hosting this event - Essay Example Beijing Olympics is believed to be the best Olympics held in the history. Britain wanted to conduct the coming Olympics even better. The competition between host nations caused huge financial burdens upon the host nations. Ã¢â¬Å"LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s Olympics has become the subject of fierce debate four years before the torch is even lit. Time Out explores the pros and cons of the 2012 Games, arguing that the event will significantly boost the capital and the nationÃ¢â¬ (Hodges, 2012). Many people already questioned the logic of spending too much money for London Olympics, especially at a period in which Britain is struggling to revive its economy. It should be noted that recent recession caused huge damages to British economy and Olympics like expensive events may worsen the problem further. This paper argues against spending too much money for London Olympics. Hosting is very expensive. In recent times the Olympics have never made a direct profit. The bidding process alone for 2012 will cost each bidding city around Ã £20m and whichever is selected will expect to pay at least Ã £6.5bn (Paris). With increased security fears Athens spent $1.5bn on security out of a total of $12bn on the 2004 games. The burden of this cost falls on government (and therefore the taxpayer), companies and individuals. Both Paris and LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s local governments have put aside around Ã £2.4bn which will mean Ã £20 per year extra in tax for every household in the cities (Bailey, 2008). Some of the recent reports showed that the total expenditure of London Olympics may cross even 9.3 billion pounds ($13.54 billion). It should be noted that many people in Britain are currently struggling because of the negative impacts of recent recession. The organizers of London Olympics are of the view that Olympics may stimulate the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. In their opinion, tourism revenues could be increased a lot as result of London Olympics. But, they are keeping a blind eye towards the fact
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Ancient Commerce in China Essay 1- The route The Silk Road, or Silk Route, is the most famous and important historically trading route of ancient Chinese civilization. This historical network of interlinking, with more than 4000 miles, between East, South, Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa began to be used under the Han Dynasty (202 BC Ã¢â¬â AD 220). Originally, the Chinese trade silk occurred internally within the empire, but the caravans were often attacked by central Asian tribes, hoping to find some valuable commodities. In order to protect these caravans, the Han Dynasty extended its military defenses further into Central Asia. Later came the idea to expand the silk trade to central Asia. Silk Road extension: The land routes are red, and the water routes are blue Source: http://en.wikipedia.org 2- Name and Purpose The Silk Road gets its name from the lucrative Chinese silk trade that was the major reason to sustain the route for so wide area. Some scholars prefer the term Ã¢â¬Å"Silk RoutesÃ¢â¬ because of the several network of routes existed there. Trading silk was not the only purpose of the Silk Road, many other commodities were also traded. In addition to silk the route carried other precious goods like gold and other precious metals, ivory, precious stones and glass, exotic animals and plants were trade as well. Indeed the silk was the most remarkable goods, mainly among the Romans, it became very popular in Rome for its soft texture and attractiveness making the Romans sees the route mainly as a Silk Route. Although this fact, the name Ã¢â¬Å"Silk RoadÃ¢â¬ originated in the nineteenth century, coined by the German scholar, von Richthofen. 3- Routes The intercontinental Silk Road had two different overland routes bypassing the Taklimakan Desert and Lop Nur. The northern route started at Changan (now called Xian), the capital of the ancient Chinese Kingdom, which, in the Later Han, was moved further east to Luoyang. The route was defined about the 1st century BCE as Han Wudi put an end to harassment by nomadic tribes The southern route was mainly a single route running from China, through the Karakoram, where it persists to modern times as the international paved road connecting Pakistan and China as the Karakoram Highway. It then set off westwards, but with southward spurs enabling the journey to be completed by sea from various points. Crossing the high mountains, it passed through northern Pakistan, over the Hindu Kush mountains, and into Afghanistan, rejoining the northern route near Merv. From there, it followed a nearly straight line west through mountainous northern Iran, Mesopotamia and the northern tip of the Syrian Desert to the Levant, where Mediterranean trading ships plied regular routes to Italy, while land routes went either north through Anatolia or south to North Africa. Another branch road traveled from Herat through Susa to Charax Spasinu at the head of the Persian Gulf and across to Petra and on to Alexandria and other eastern Mediterranean ports from where ships carried the cargoes to Rome. The Silk Road in the 1st century Source: http://en.wikipedia.org 4- Mongol Age In central Asia, Islam expanded from the 7th century onward, bringing a stop to Chinese westward expansion at the Battle of Talas in 751. Further expansion of the Islamic Turks in Central Asia from the 10th century finished disrupting trade in that part of the world. For a long time during the Middle Ages, the Islamic Caliphate often had a monopoly over much of the trade conducted across the route. Under the command of Genghis Khan, the Mongol Empire rapidly proceeded to conquer a huge region of Asia, the Mongol expansion throughout the Asian continent from around 1207 to 1360 helped to bring political and stability and re-establish the Silk Road. The partial unification of so many states under the Mongol Empire allowed a significant interaction between cultures of different regions. The trading started to happen again and the route became important as path for communication between different parts of the Empire once more. The Mongols, in general, were more open to ideas, more sympathetic to different religions and nationalities promoting the trading. Around 1288, the Venetian explorer Marco Polo became one of the first Europeans to travel the Silk Road to China, he was not the first, however, the most well known and best documented visitor. In his tales, The Travels of Marco Polo, he describes the way of life in the cities and small kingdoms through which his party passed, with particular interest on the trade and marriage customs, opening the western eyes to some of the customs of the Far East. 5- The Peak, Decline and the Sea Route In seventh century, the Silk Route had its height of importance at this time during the Tang dynasty China was a living a relative stability after the divisions of the earlier dynasties since the Han. The art and civilization of the Silk Road achieved its highest poin in the Tang Dynasty. Changan, as the starting point of the route, as well as the capital of the dynasty, developed into one of the largest and most cosmopolitan cities of the time. By 742 A.D its population reached almost two million people and in 754 A.D it had around five thousand foreigners living in the city. During the Mongol Empire as mentioned before, the route established a new good period but despite the presence of the Mongols, the route never reached the heights that it did in the Tang dynasty. Furthermore, with the disintegration of the Mongol empire, that was fairly short-lived, the barriers rose again on the land route between East and West. After the Mongol Empire, the control of the Silk Road became economically and culturally separated. The demise of the Silk Road developed the Silk Route by sea at that time it was becoming easier and safer to transport goods by water than overland (Later however, the sea route suffered a lot of problems like bad weather and pirates). Beside this the sea route passed by promising new markets in Southern Asia at that time. The commerce with China and Asia at that time was very profitable and this situation is significantly important in explaining several factors about the present economy. It was the main driving factor for the Portuguese, and later Europeans, explorations of the Indian Ocean, including the sea of China. 6- Nowadays The last link along the Silk Road was completed in 1990, when the railway connecting Lanzhou to Urumchi was extended to the border with Kazakhstan, providing an important route to the new republics and beyond. Beside this the trade route itself is also being reopened, trading between the peoples of Xinjiang and Russia has developed quickly. The new republics in Central Asia have been contributing much of the heavy industry of the region. Trade with China has also utilized the route it was encouraged by the socialist market economy and its benefits to the market. 7- Conclusion The Silk Road played a key role in the development of the ancient economy in Asia, especially in China, In China it was the main responsible to significantly increase the number of foreign merchants present in China under the Han Dynasty and exposing the Chinese and visitors to their country to different cultures and religions. Buddhism spread from India to China because of trade along the Silk Route. This route was very important in foreign trade, during all history of civilization in the last 1200 years, placing China and India, and all East Asia, in a major role for contact with the western world in a time when this region was isolated by deserts and oceans. During the Mongol Empire, based on the MongolÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of liberty about different religions and cultures, once more, the route had a very important role in the foreign trade and culture exchange between Asia countries and some countries of Europe and Africa as well. Later, the great population and the varieties of products attracted the European interest (economic center of the world at that time), by sea several expeditions in order to explore the commerce in that region change the course of the world, affecting the Americas and Africa as well Asia, being decisive in the current political, economic and social aspects of several countries in these continents.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Unprofessional Police Officers in the Police Force Essay In the Internet I have found an interesting web-site Ã¢â¬Å"Bad Cop, No DonutÃ¢â¬ . This is a Ã¢â¬Å"weekly wrap-up of North American police brutality, misconduct and corruptionÃ¢â¬ . In other words there are plenty examples of unprofessional police officers. Here I found three situations to analyze. The first situation is described in the article Ã¢â¬Å"Woman dies after being struck by police officer during shootoutÃ¢â¬ , In general it looks like a cop killed a woman accidentally on the crime scene while she was looking out from the window. The police officer explained that he saw a man with a gun and told him to drop a weapon. In response a suspect began firing and the policemen shoot a woman accidentally. The woman died in a hospital as a result. Unfortunately the consequences of this accident are fatal and there are no words of consolation for the family of the victim. But from the other side this officer was implementing the duties which are entrusted in him by the society and this is a side affect. If there was no this officer on the crime scene it may result in much more deaths. Of course there are several things that can help to avoid such consequences in the future: 1. Police should explain civilians that it is very dangerous to present near skirmish actions and it is essential to find a shelter until the situation will be stabilized. 2. Shooting abilities of police officers must be tested regularly. 3. It is possible to find a substitute for fire-arms and use some other weapons when there are a lot of civilians around. The second situation is described in the article Ã¢â¬Å"Dallas Officer Arrested On Extortion ChargesÃ¢â¬ . This article is about a policeman who released some traffic violators in exchange for money. I consider such situation to be intolerable and such officers should be imprisoned because they promote crime. Drunk drivers or speed-lovers can kill or harm other people first of all, and it is let alone about their own health. In order to evade such situations I can make the following recommendations: 1. Reinforce the inside control of the police. 2. Toughen preventive punishment for such officers. The third article is about witness tampering and is entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Former Lumberton Police Officer Sentenced for Witness TamperingÃ¢â¬ . This story is about a former policeman who planted evidences in suspectÃ¢â¬â¢s home and made false statements to FBI. Such activities are inadmissible too because in result there can be punished innocent people first of all. In addition this man prevented investigation from establishing and punishing the guilty. This in turn would leave criminals unpunished and they will continue breaking the laws, and tax-payers will suffer. I do not think that such behavior can be prevented is can be only punished correspondingly. In conclusion I would like to say that police is entrusted by the society to defend people, prevent delinquencies and contribute to social stability. Therefore, it is inadmissible for policemen to break the law or behave unprofessionally. Police needs to take serious and deliberate steps to improve their performance. Unprofessional policemen cast a shadow on the police force as a whole thus people can loose their trust to police as a guarantor of order.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Facilities Available To Small Medium Enterprises In Mauritius Economics Essay Small and Medium Enterprises have been given differing definitions around the globe. Some countries refer to the number of employees as their distinctive criteria, some to the amount of invested capital in the business, and others a combine the amount of annual turnover, capital employed and type of industry. The definition of SMEs in Mauritius has evolved throughout the past years. According to the Small Scale Industry Act of 1988, a Small Enterprise is one which is engaged in manufacturing1 and which uses production equipment, the aggregate CIF value of which does not exceed Rs 500,000. The Industrial Expansion Act 1993 defines SMEs as enterprises which : are engaged in manufacturing use production equipment, the CIF value of which does not exceed Rs 10 m With time, came the Small and Medium Industry and Development Authority Act (SMIDO Act 1993) according to which SMEs are defined in terms of the size of capital employed and was an extension to the SSI Act 1988 definition. SMEs are defined as enterprises engaged in manufacturing and using production equipment in their manufacturing process which includes transformation/conversion of raw materials, repair, packing, assembly of semi-finished parts into finished goods. The production equipment refers to equipment directly related to production. Such value of production should not exceed Rs 5 million (SMIDO Act 1993). A revision of this definition by the SMIDO Act 1998 altered the value of production of Rs 5m to Rs 10m. Worth pointing out in those definitions quoted above that they consider only the manufacturing sector. Thus for this study, the most appropriate definition found was that of the SMEDA Act, which includes enterprises in all economic sectors, and so as to avoid sector specific criteria, turnover criteria is being used across sectors. Therefore, the SMEDA Act defines : Small enterprises as those who have an annual turnover of not more than 10 million MUR, and Medium Enterprises as those with an annual turnover of more than 10 million MUR but not more than 50 million MUR. 1. Manufacturing : transformation for commercial purposes of raw materials or semi-processed materials into finished or semi-finished goods including the repair, packaging and assembly of inputs into finished or semi-finished goods. For the study, both small and medium enterprises will be considered. Contribution of SMEs SMEs are the largest group of industrial units in most developing countries and make a significant contribution to manufacturing output and employment (Wignaraja 2003, p.2). According to the Organisation for Economic Coorperation and Development (OECD), factors such as a countrys economic patterns, social and cultural dimensions are reflected though their SMEs. Storey (1994) points out that small firms, no matter how they are defined, make up the bulk of enterprises in all economies around the world. The latter half of the last century has witnessed widespread roles SMEs and this cannot, in any way, be understated (Bygrave, 1994;Timmons,1994). On the issue of job creation, Andrew Stone (World Bank, 1997, Facts About Small business 1997) said that SMEs create more employment than large enterprises and with a lower investment per job created. To the layman, it is clear that creation of a Small and Medium enterprise is synonymous to job creation and economic growth. This fact is indeed not false. The positive link between SMEs and employment creation, poverty alleviation, and economic growth is universally acknowledged (Beyenne, 2000). In several countries, particularly in East Asia, they are the driving force of the economy. For instance, in Hong Kong, SMEs account for over 98% of the total establishments and provide job opportunities to about 1.3 million persons, about 60% of total employment.4 According to the Strategic Industrial and SMEs Plan 2010-2013, the emergence of SMEs in the Mauritius has contributed significantly to employment, output and entrepreneurship development within the industrial sector. The last census of the Central Statistical Office carried in 2007 reveals that there are around 91 980 small enterprises operating in Mauritius, an increase of about 22% from the 2002 figure of 74, 928. The survey also showed an increase of 18.8 % in the number of persons engaged by these institutions, from 175, 791 in 2002, to 208,797 in 2007, representing approximately 40% of employment. Furthermore, contribution to the Gross Domestic Product was 20%. 2. Currently the body regulating SMEs in Mauritius replacing the SEHDA 3. Mauritian SME Portal 4. Mauritian SME portal 5. CSO survey 2007 SMEs which are registered with the SMEDA2 and which will be under scrutiny in this study are categorised into 12 sectors as at 2010, namely, Food and Beverages, Leather and Garments, Wood and Furniture, Paper products and Printing, Chemical, Rubber and plastic, Handicrafts, Pottery and Ceramic, Jewellery and Related Items, Fabricated Metal Products, Profession/Vocation/Occupation, Trade and Commerce, Business Support Service Sector, Others.3 These total to around 6421 enterprises. Objectives of the study Having explained the various definitions of Small and Medium Enterprises and pointed out their importance and contribution to the Mauritian economy, it is now clear that these institutions play a key role in our country. Enterprises in developing countries, including Mauritius are facing far more competitive environments in this fast moving technological world (World Bank,1999). They are offered various facilities to start their business as well as to continue and also expand. Among those facilities we find financing, training, business counseling, marketing, information technology and export incentives. These are available with a view of better performance from these enterprises and also to make them more cost effective, produce better products in terms of design, quality and reliability to thus be able to compete with not only larger companies on the local market but also on the foreign market. Now, with the creation of many support institutions such as the Small and Medium Enterpr ises Development Authority (SMEDA), National Women Entrepreneur Council (NWEC), Human Resources Development Council (HRDC), Enterprise Mauritius (EM), Mauritius Employers Federation (MEF), Development Bank of Mauritius (DBM), Mauritius Business Growth Scheme (MBGS) which see to it that SMEs lack in nothing to operate, the latter have to take full advantage of these conveniences and also make the best use of them and thus reduce waste of resources. The main aim of this study is to analyse whether these facilities are being given in the right amount, too much, or too little in assistance of SMEs. Other objectives are as follows: Assess whether SMEs are taking full advantage of these facilities. Consider whether proper use is being made of aid and there is minimum waste of resources Investigate which of these facilities are more important for the creation and sustenance of SMEs 2.0 Literature Review 2.1 A look at the need for facilities It is now recognised that Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) make a significant contribution to the socio-economic and political infrastructure of developed and developing countries as well as the nations in transition from command to market economies (Matlay and Westhead 2005). Harper (1998) notes that the relative and absolute importance of small enterprises has grown enormously over the last twenty years; this real growth has been matched by appreciation of their role. SMEs were once considered as mere stepping stones to real business, but now they are being viewed as being a vital contributor to the income and development of people. It therefore follows that countries should be ready to help those businesses which come forward with viable projects in terms of providing aid such as finance, marketing, training, adoption of new technologies, export incentives and business counseling. Furthermore, it is also expected from these business units to make full use of such incentiv es being provided to them, usually at lower cost. A look at those incentives will show that while necessary, some are difficult to obtain and some are not used optimally even though they are available much easily. Below, is a detailed look at all the facilities that will be covered in the study. 2.2.1 Financing Importance of finance Financing is one of the most important success factors of any business, and Small and Medium Enterprises are no exception. Financing helps them set up and expand their operations, develop new products, and invest in new staff or production facilities. Many small businesses are created by one or two people, who might start by investing their own money and/or taking loans from friends and family, or loans from financial institutions. After some time in operation, if they are successful, there comes a time when they will feel the need to expand (OECD, 2006). Therefore, finance being the backbone of all firms, it should be accorded much attention. SMEs are today considered by many countries to be of a key importance to the growth of their economy in terms of GDP contribution and also job creation. It therefore follows that these institutions should be having no difficulties in finding funds to not only start their enterprise, but also for sustenance and growth. However, according to the United Nations, the lack of financial assistance is a persistent problem and it is the most serious barrier to SME growth and expansion. Available funds are often diverted to the larger enterprises and only an insignificant number of SMEs seem able to attract bank financing (UN, 1993). Westhead and Wright (2000) state that the absence of adequate funding represents a major obstacle to the entrepreneurial process in a firm regardless of size, location or type of economic activity. Some life style entrepreneurs can satisfy their small firms financial needs by requesting loans from their families, friends or acquaintances (Hussain and Matlay, 2007). Typically, however, it remains a fact that the vast majority of growth oriented SMEs rely on long-term funding made available by banks, financial institutions or venture capitalists. Research has shown that banks hesitate in giving finance aid to small businesses. Pasadilla (2010, p.7) pointed out that banks, in both normal and crisis period, usually give priority to low-risk borrowers like large enterprises with profitable investments and sound collateral (ADBI Working Paper 2010, p.7). Banks may avoid providing financing to certain types of SMEs, in particular, start ups and very young firms that typically lack sufficient collateral, or firms whose activities offer the possibilities of high returns but at a substantial risk of loss (OECD 2006, p.3). The lack of collateral being a prime reason for SMEs not obtaining finance, another rationale is that banks might still prefer to grant loans to large and less risky companies rather than SMEs. Additionally information asymmetries and inappropriate business plans might also be considerable factors resulting in little or no access to finance.*(Asia Pacific Environmental innovation strategies APEIS 2004). However, as Cosh and Hughes (2003) point out, banks remain the main supplier of external SME finance, though there may be various financing constraints. The main source of finance to SMEs are bank loans. For example, in the UK, the most predominant way of financing small businesses remains bank loans (D.Irwin and J.Scott 2009, p.2) As a response to the lack of collateral issue, countries might come up with Loan Guarantee schemes by either public or private sector. The main aim of such a scheme is to encourage financial institutions to offer finance to SMEs. Under this scheme, the government provides a guarantee to the lending banks on specific types of loans to potentially viable SMEs (National Economic Research Associates, 1990). In return, SMEs pay a premium to the government. Moreover, there are also collateral free schemes to alleviate the problem of lack of collaterals. In this scheme, the SMEs are not required to provide any guarantee at all. In India, SIDBI, UNIDO and Indian Institute for Rural Development (IIRD) have successfully implemented this kind of scheme (APEIS, 2004) Leasing also shows up as an attempt to avoid collaterals. The lessor will remains owner of the asset and the lessee will be required to pay amounts at regular intervals for the use of the leased equipment, vehicle, or any other asset on lease. At the end, the asset can be sold at a minimum price to the lessee. Indeed, leasing is a very common way of financing assets in many countries. Other means of obtaining finance can be through Equity financing, that is issuing shares to meet long term capital need, Overdraft where SMEs will be allowed to withdraw money in excess of their actual bank balance, however they will be faced with rather high interest rates Mutual Guarantee Scheme which as stated the Commission of the European Communities, give a collective guarantee for appropriations provided to their members, who in return contribute to raise the equity and participate in the management of the mutual society 2.2.2 Training Training has been defined as a planned and systematic effort to modify or develop knowledge, skills and attitudes through learning experiences, to achieve effective performance in an activity or a range of activities (Garavan et al, 1997). It has been advocated as essential for every job (Tyler, 2005) and SMEs make use of training facilities to varying extents and varying success. Training certainly brings about learning experience which has for aim to improve a persons ability to perform a job. Traditionally, it focuses on technical knowledge, skills and abilities to complete current tasks (Treven, 2003). When trained, SMEs will attain a higher knowledge of not only the product they are developing but also about issues like how to be abreast to better technology, how to approach people for example suppliers, clients, employees with better tact through human resources training. Furthermore, training provided to employees will increase the quality of labour employed in the product mak ing. The British Chamber of Commerce (2007) points out that with proper training scheme, SMEs will be able to preserve their staff. Training to SMEs can be : For the potential entrepreneur For employees of the enterprise Geared towards product development Adoption of new technology, for example moving from manual system to computerized For owners on human resource management On financial issues, e.g. costing, investment appraisal, budgeting and forecasting How to market the product However, according to Stanworth and Gray (1992), there has been an identification of industry effects and size effects in responsiveness to training; with very small firms being least interested in providing employee training. Size and industry in which the SMEs operate can indeed play an important role in whether the SMEs train or not. Small sized companies will be least interested in providing training for factors such as financial issues, and also due to practical considerations. For example, as Kailer (1988) states, SMEs might be reluctant to release employees to attend training interventions. Furthermore, training provided may be too general and not of specific relevance to the SME, resulting in the sector providing fewer training interventions (Westhead and Storey, 1996). Other disincentives that SMEs might face into not providing training is the little potential that these enterprises have in offering higher pay, and they are less equipped to provide internal promotions for employees. As Westhead and Storey (1996) argue, such characteristics, when combined with the resultant increased risk that employees may be poached lead to lower instances of SME training. Moreover, SMEs are often not aware of the training needs of their enterprise. They do not have the proper staff to analyse such need and advise them into providing some training. As a result, SMEs provide more informal*refers to mostly on the job training, tutoring and mentoring than formal* training in a systematic approach, more like seminars, grouping targeted trainees under one roof. training. Many SMEs admit that their training provisions are informal but are of the opinion that only formal training is real training (Curran,2000). However, very often due to financial constraints, SMEs prefer other forms of training. A study* Training needs and human resource development analysis of SMEs in Mauritius by the European Commission for the Human Resources Development Council of Mauritius in 2008 showed that of the 300 SMEs which interviewed, only 35 % trained on a regular basis and were aware of the training grants operated by the HRDC, and of these, only 31 % have used it. These SMEs tended to adopt in-house training. Reasons stated for training were mainly for business development and because of the company policy and reasons not to train included the reluctance of specialised skills, and the fact that the employees were already qualified. It was also found that there were significant differences between those enterprises that provided training on a regular basis and those which did not. A positive link was found between the propensity to grow and propensity to train. To encourage SMEs to train more, government can provide incentives, such as free training or financial aid, help to cope with labour shortages and hiring difficulties and provision more information to create better awareness. In central and eastern Canada, an important tool to promote training in small businesses is the provision of information about the courses and setting up of additional government programs (Andreea Dulipovici, 2003) 2.2.3 Marketing Literature of marketing Marketing is a vital and indispensable business activity for all types of organizations that create and offer products of value Marketing in Mauritius 2.2.4 ICT and SMEs For countries in the vanguard of the world economy, the balance between knowledge and resources has shifted so far towards the former that knowledge has become perhaps the most important factor determining the standard of living more than land, than tools, than labour. Todays most technologically advanced economies are truly knowledge-based. World Development Report, 1999 As the global economy becomes increasingly reliant on information and communications technology (ICT) to receive, process, and send out information, small businesses do not have to be left out. Adoption of the latest technology or at least basic tools of ICT helps small enterprises to better merge with the developing economy, and operate more cost effectively. It can help SMEs create business opportunities, combat pressures from competition and improve their products through faster communication with their clients and marketing of products online. In 2000, an organization that used paper took on average 7.4 days to move a purchase from request to approval, but if done electronically, only took 1.5 days (Cassidy, 2002) UNESCAP and UNDP-APDIP have collaborated extensively to help formulate strategic policies and building the necessary environment to encourage SMEs take advantage of the Internet to create business opportunities in Asia and the Pacific. Many countries such as India, Republic of Korea, and Taiwan have created suitable environments to ensure that SMEs are well positioned to capture emerging business opportunities in terms of better technology. India, for example, offered relief from import duties for IT hardware, tax deductions for income earned form software exports, and tax holidays, and developed infrastructure in Software Technology Parks*A strategic review of the software industry in India 1998-1999. At the outset it is not necessary that all SMEs need to adopt ICT tools to the same degree of sophistication (UNDP,2007). The relationship between ICT and SMEs starts on a ground as simple as the use of a telephone to contact suppliers, clients. A fixed line or a mobile phone will do, whichever is more cost effective. Another most common tool used is of course the Personal Computers (PCs). The latter are very helpful for simple information processing needs such as producing texts, writing letters, keeping track of accounting items using basic software. PCs can also be used to access the Internet for more advanced communications capabilities such as email, file sharing, creating websites, searching for information, Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP)* 30% of Skypes*VoIP programme used to communicate via the internet. Worldwide subscribers are primarily SMEs, and e-commerce. Electronic commerce has been defined as the process of buying and selling goods and services electronically through computerized business transactions using the Internet, networks and other digital technologies (Lauden and Lauden, 2000). It also encompasses activities supporting market transactions such as advertising, marketing, customer support, delivery and payment. ICT oriented SMEs might use advanced Information Technology software such as Enterprise Resource Planning*offers a single repository for information on all business functions. which can capture cost savings, or SCM software which helps increase productivity, efficiency of inventory controls, and increase sales through closer relationships and faster delivery times. These allow SMEs to better coordinate their business, especially if the latter is growing and diversifying. The extent to which ICT will be adopted in SMEs will depend on the size of the business, on the benefits its adoption is planned to bring, on the ICT capacity of the SME and its employees and also on the financing capabilities. Despite the advantages that adoption of ICT demonstrates, many SMEs do not make use of it. For example, 90% of Thai SMEs still use basic communication technology such as fixed phone line and fax, and only 1% use CRM software. In Malaysia, only 30% of the local SMEs have their own website, and not all of them are updated regularly. Fuller(1993) points out that despite the number of benefits to be gained from technology, based on the users perspective ,SMEs adopt technology according to their self assessments of how the new technologies will change bottom line profitability. 2.2.5 Business counselling and access to information 2.2.6 Export Incentives 2.3 Support institutions As Wignaraja and Oneil (1999) argue, for the size of the country and its stage of development, Mauritius has a particularly wide range of support services for the SME sector. The availability of such support is mainly ensured by the Government, parastatal bodies and financial institutions. Below is a deeper look at those institutions in Mauritius. 2.3.1 The Small and Medium Enterprises Development Authority Looking back at the historical background of institutions supporting SMEs in Mauritius, we find the creation of the Small Industry Unit (SSIU), established under the aegis of the then Ministry of Commerce and Industry. The SSIU became the Small Industry Development Organisation (SIDO) in 1983. 10 years later, the Small and Medium Industry Development Organisation was set up for further development of the SME sector in Mauritius. The SMIDO later merged with the National Handicraft Promotion Agency (NHPA) to form the Small Enterprises and Handicraft Development Authority (SEHDA), whose main aim was to provide support to potential and existing SMEs. More recently (date needed) the SEHDA was replaced by the Small and Medium Enterprises Development Authority. It is an agency of the Government that has aims like supporting and facilitating the development of entrepreneurship and SMEs in Mauritius. Apart from providing a range of services to the SME sector, SMEDA tries to sensitise the population, through workshops and seminars organized throughout the country, about The benefits of entrepreneurship Key issues/steps to consider and, procedures to follow when starting a business, and Facilities and resources provided by the SMEDA and other support institutions Services offered by the SMEDA Ease of Financing The SMEDA works in collaboration with the DBM to offer some financing aid to SMEs. In fact, DBM is the bank through which the Government provides finance at lower costs to SMEs. The SMEDA along with the bank provides a Booster (Micro Credit) Loan with a maximum amount of Rs 150, 000 at an interest charge of 9% per annum. No collateral is needed, but the entrepreneurs signing up for that loan need to provide a general floating charge as security. For this kind of loan, there is no need to submit a business plan. This amount is provided for the purchase of equipment and raw materials. The loan is repayable within 5 years and applies to enterprises in manufacturing, handicraft, trade, ICT and agriculture. Another loan is provided for an amount not exceeding Rs 40, 000, interest charge of 8.5 % per annum The SMEDA also provides grants under the Aegis of the Government Moreover DBM offers other financing schemes such as : The Business Development Loan scheme this applies to Manufacturing, Trade and Service, Transport, ICT, Tourism, Art and participation in overseas trade fairs and surveys. Business Counselling and Facilitation SMEDA helps potential entrepreneurs to prepare a business plan in order for them to secure financing from institutions, mainly the DBM. A Business Plan is one where the potential investor will lay down the description of his thought business and its plans for the next one to three years. It shows what the selected market of the product will be, and also indicates the finance available and what will be needed more to implement the project. As far as business counselling is concerned, potential entrepreneurs SMEDA provides advice about different issues such as discussing and finalizing their business idea. Also, not well-informed entrepreneurs obtain help on issues such as registering of the business, and other steps to follow in establishing their enterprise. Existing entrepreneurs are counselled about the difficulties they come up with, and how to take their business to the next level. SMEDA has also come up with an incubator system which helps entrepreneurs who lack physical space to carry on a project, given that the project is a viable one. The incubator is situated at the head office, in Coromandel. Information and Documentation A website has been recently created to help existing and potential businesspersons in their quest of running a business. This facility helps the cited persons to gather any information they need to set up a business, advice on market research, business plans, importance of financing and financing schemes, training schedules and locations, marketing and fairs organised, articles published by local as well as international bodies, online forms, support institutions are provided online. The site is as follows http://www.gov.mu/portal/sites/smeportal/index.htm. Furthermore, there is the Documentation Centre which gives access to entrepreneurs and the general public to a collection of books, journals, magazines, project files and reports on various sectors. Training 2.3.2 Chapter 3 : Research methodology
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Comparing Edgar Allan Poe's "Annabel Lee" and "The Raven" Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Edgar Allan Poe's view on poetry is that all poems must be a "rhythmical creation of beauty". In his eyes, melancholy and sadness is beautful. He thinks that the death of a young beautiful woman is itself full of beauty. In both "Annabel Lee" and "The Raven", Poe writes about this so-called beauty. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In "Annabel Lee", a young man is mourning the death of a beautiful young lady. Even though the woman had died quite some time ago, the man is still in melancholy. He misses her terribly and constantly thinks of how she was she was tragically taken from him by the angels who were jealous of their love, and by her family who didn't think the he himself was capable of bringing her to her final resting place. He loved Annabel Lee more than anyother human can love another. The following quote tells the reader how much he loves her and shows that he would do anything for her, even if that means sleeping by her tomb, each and every night. "And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side of my darling, my life and my bride, in her sepulchre there by the sea, in her tomb by the side of the sea." Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In "The Raven", a man, most likely older than the man in "Annabel Lee", mourns the death of his love whom he called "Lenore". Lenore, like Annabel Lee, had died several years earlier. In "The Raven", man hears tapping on his chamber door and sees the curtains slowly swaying. He believes that it can be no other than Lenore. Unfortunately for him though, it is only but a bird. A large, black bird known as the Raven. Although the men in these two stories are similar because they both mourn for their loved ones, they are also different.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Introduction: In recent years it has become clear that some environmental chemicals can cause risks to the developing embryo and fetus. Evaluating the developmental toxicity of environmental chemicals is now a prominent public health concern. The suspected association between TCE and congenital cardiac malformations warrants special attention because TCE is a common drinking water contaminant that is detected in water supplies throughout the U.S. and the world. There is a lot of concern about the clean up of toxic pollutants from the environment. Traditional methods for cleaning up contaminated sites such as dig and haul, pump and treat, soil venting, air sparging and others are generally harmful to habitats. Some methods strip the soil of vital nutrients and microorganisms, so nothing can grow on the site, even if it has been decontaminated. Typically these mechanical methods are also very expensive. Most of the remediation technologies that are currently in use are very expensive, relatively inefficient and generate a lot of waste, to be disposed of. Cleaning up contamination: Phytoremediation is a novel, efficient, environmentally friendly, low-cost technology, which uses plants and trees to clean up soil and water contaminated with heavy metals and/or organic contaminants such as solvents, crude oil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic compounds from contaminated environments. This technology is useful for soil and water remediation. Mechanisms: Phytoremediation uses one basic concept: the plant takes the pollutant through the roots. The pollutant can be stored in the plant (phytoextraction), volatized by the plant (phytovolatization), metabolized by the plant (phytodegradation), or any combination of the above. Phytoextraction is the uptake and storage of pollutants in the plants stem or leaves. Some plants, called hyperaccumulators, draw pollutants through the roots. After the pollutants accumulate in the stem and leaves the plants are harvested. Then plants can be either burned or sold. Even if the plants cannot be used, incineration and disposal of the plants is still cheaper than traditional remediation methods. As a comparison, it is estimated a site containing 5000 tons of contaminated soil will produce only 20-30 tons of ash (Black, 1995). This method is particularly useful when remediating metals. Some metals are also being recycled from the ash. Phytovolatization is the uptake and vaporization of pollutants by a plant. This mechanism takes a solid or liquid contaminant and transforms it to an airborne vapor. The vapor can either be the pure pollutant, or the plant can metabolize the pollutant before it is vaporized, as in the case of mercury, lead and selenium (Boyajian and Carriera, 1997; Black, 1995; Wantanbe, 1997).
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Honors 101 October 3rd 2012 These Dang Creation Stories While both the Book of Genesis within the Bible and the seven tablets called the Enuma Elish (Enuma Elis) are both considered to be religious texts, their accounts for how the universe and humans came to be are both similar and contrasting. The Book of Genesis, which is believed to have been written sometime during the 13th century BCE, during the time of Moses. This book is one way of describing how the world, the universe, the plants, animals, and everything came to be through GodÃ¢â¬â¢s mighty work in a time frame of seven days.All aspects of life came from a single God, the Ã¢â¬Å"Creator of the universe, YHVH (Yahweh). Throughout the first 11 books of Genesis, the reader can imagine through imagery of how Earth was formed, as well as the first covenant and the first sin within the Ã¢â¬Å"Garden of Eden. Ã¢â¬ The seven tablets called the Ã¢â¬Å"Enuma Elish,Ã¢â¬ are believed to have been written in the late 12th centu ry BCE, with the author unknown. The Enuma Elish is the Babylonian account of how the Earth and the universe were created, along with the rest of the inhabitants of Earth over an unknown amount of time, through a clash with a big god and a goddess.There is a specific way that the objects of Earth and the universe are created, which gives the tablets structure within the stories. To begin, both the Book of Genesis and the Enuma Elish are their own Ã¢â¬Å"religious historicalÃ¢â¬ telling of how the universe was created. In the Book of Genesis, Earth and the universe are created by God (solo, no help) over a time period of seven days, with the seventh day acting as a day of rest.In the Enuma Elish, the time period in which Earth and all the rest are created isnÃ¢â¬â¢t specified very well, although at the end of it, the GodÃ¢â¬â¢s who create it all decide to have a huge celebration rather than having a day of rest. This shows how the godÃ¢â¬â¢s within the stories are very diffe rent than each other because the God from Genesis decides to take a rest and recover from all of his energy used as well as sanctify the Sabbath. Inversely, the gods from the Enuma Elish decide to rest, as well as celebrate and Ã¢â¬Å"partyÃ¢â¬ for their creation has come to be.God, from the Bible, is perceived to be a merciful and gentle, calm being, whilst the other gods from the Enuma Elish are taken to be overly excited for what they just created, for they know not what will come of their development as they havenÃ¢â¬â¢t taken into factor any of the sins or wrongful doings of the inhabitants. Although the Bible creation story is done through one god, versus the Enuma Elish which incorporates multiple gods into the creation of Earth, helps to split the responsibility of such a complex Earth to many gods, which is more reasonable than a singular God in the Bible creating Earth.In the Enuma Elish, creation is accomplished through conflict and warfare with lots of noise and bat tle scenes. In the Genesis telling, however, we find a profound sense of peace and quiet. The opposite of warfare and conflict can be seen in the instance of God's divine nature, Ã¢â¬Å"And God saidÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And it was soÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ When one looks into the genre of both stories, it is quite easy to see that the Enuma Elish is clearly mythological, but Genesis is not only non-mythological, but anti-mythical.Genesis shows that the things that mankind worships, the gods, the idols, and the symbols, are little more than the creation of the one God himself. This can sway the present-day audience one way or the other, most likely swaying them to believe that the stories shown in the Enuma Elish as fake or impossible because of the war between the gods and goddess and Ã¢â¬Å"splitting her like a shellfish. Ã¢â¬ Humans now know through science that this is quite impossible to accomplish through any amount of strength, which would sway the reader to think that this story is clearly mythological.However, in the account of Genesis, the creation of everything seems to be more plausible than not because of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s calm sense of creating. It leads the writing away from being mythological since God does not introduce other far-staring creatures/gods such as Tiamat, as from her split body creates heaven and earth. From this, the mythological sense of the story comes about, and from there the reader can tell that the narrative is no longer true, but more a fairy tale like record of events; an easier and more entertaining way of telling the children and adults of a time when reading was a rare skill of life.The imagery and adventure within the story were relevant at the time of its writing, but its attraction over the past 2000+ years has lost its pizazz, which is why the story of Genesis and the Bible has last, and the Enuma Elish is now considered as Ã¢â¬Å"dead. Ã¢â¬ The most important aspect of these two parables is in Genesis, man is created from clay to rule over the creation and sadly, in the Enuma Elish, man is created from a god's blood to be slaves of the gods. God in Genesis is now interpreted to be putting his own image into humans, giving them a good moral body.In the Enuma Elish on the other hand, humans are created in the blood of Kingu, TiamutÃ¢â¬â¢s second in command, where humanoids are created to sacrifice to the gods. This shows how humans are on two different pedestals between the two religions. In one, humans are seen as a creation of God to further cultivate his creation of earth, while in the other, humans are seen are a slave to the gods, as theyÃ¢â¬â¢re simply sacrifices for the gods and everything that they stand for. Humans will look at this and think to themselves about how they would rather want to be seen as. Independent thinkers who are here on this planet to make it better and create more?Or humans who were made from the blood of a wrongful doer and now are only seen as slaves to the gods abov e? The logical way of thinking would be to turn to the God who isnÃ¢â¬â¢t omnipresent to see you die as a slave and a sacrifice, but rather as a spiritual being who wants to view the humans and see their prosperity come about through the rightful doings of their actions and create a better planet for themselves through the works of their own self. Simply because of this, the story of Genesis has been able to outlast the sands of time, whereas the Enuma Elish has fallen and wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to get back up.After comparing the two accounts as similar and different stories, it becomes clear that if one is to base a comparison and conclusion off of the similarities alone, then some important differences are likely going to be ignored. In the Genesis telling, Moses purposefully portrays a monotheistic God who creates within the soulfulness of peace. The Enuma Elish is polytheistic and the gods operate within the realms of war, violence, and one without rest. Furthermore, Moses seems to choose his words carefully in describing GodÃ¢â¬â¢s creation, which allows GodÃ¢â¬â¢s ways to seem far calmer than that of the other creation story.For example he writes that God created, Ã¢â¬Å"the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night,Ã¢â¬ as opposed to using Ã¢â¬Å"sunÃ¢â¬ (shemesh) and Ã¢â¬Å"moonÃ¢â¬ (sin), perhaps knowing that many may misinterpret the account as God creating lesser gods. Knowing that there are simply these differences between the two, it is easy to conclude that neither the Enuma Elish nor the Genesis account were borrowed or influenced by each other. Genesis is far different than the other Near Eastern creation myth and therefore cannot be considered close to the other.
Monday, September 16, 2019
1. What development in motor cars led to the need to replace the block brake? What was the replacement? With the adoption of pneumatic rubber tyres for cars in 1895, the block brake became impractical and was replaced as an automobile brake, and was replaced by the contracting band brake. 2. Who invented the drum brake? In what year did this occur? In 1902 Louis Renault invented the internal expanding drum brake. 3. Why was the drum brake superior to its predecessors? First, the shoes are enclosed on the drum so the friction lining is away from water or dirt, so they last longer. The drum brake also exhibits servo-assistance, in both forward and reverse; the leading shoe exhibits servo assistance in forward travel, the trailing shoe in reverse travel. 4. Why are the disc brakes used extensively now? The disc brake offers better heat dissipation than the drum brake and also offers better weather performance as water is thrown off the disc by centrifugal force. 5. Why is asbestos still allowed in brake linings in Australia? Asbestos gave the break lining greater stability at higher temperatures, thus the linings are more resistant to break failure form the heat. 6. The coefficient of friction (Ã µ) is ratio between what two values? The coefficient of friction is the ratio of the frictional force present and the normal reaction to the matting surfaces. Ã µ=FFRN 7. What is the tensile stress in a brake cable of diameter 2 mm if the tensile force in the cable is 200N? 8. Draw a stress strain curve for mild steel; label the proportional limit, the upper and lower yield points and the UTS. . What is the difference between elastic and plastic deformation? 10. State Pascals principle. Why is it important to hydraulics? 11. What is steel? 12. What is the difference between austenite and ferrite? 13. What is pearlite? 14. What happens to the hardness of steel as the amount of cementite increases? 15. Describe what martensite is. 16. Why is manganese added to steels? 17. What effect will nickel have if added to a low alloy steel? 18. Why is molybdenum added to the nickel-chromium steels? 19. Why is Hadfield steel used for? What is different about its structure at room temperature as opposed to plain carbon steels? 20. There are three types of stainless steels available. List three and describe the uses of each? 21. Which stainless steel is non-magnetic? 22. What is the difference cast iron and steel? 23. Carbon appears in different forms in cast irons, how does it appear in white cast iron and grey cast iron? 24. Which type of grey cast iron is stronger, fine or course? 25. How do SG cast iron and CG cast iron differ? 26. Blackheart malleable cast iron has free carbon present in Whiteheart malleable cast iron? 27. Is free carbon present in Whiteheart malleable cast iron? 28. Why is copper added to break pads? 29. What type of resin is used to bind the break pad together? 30. Draw two stress strain diagrams, one showing high toughness, and one displaying high strength but a brittle failure. 31. What are the four hardness tests available? 32. Find the tension in the vertical and horizontal cables for the brake system shown. Slove this problem graphically then analytically.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Tim Kenda English 102 Short Story Essay 2/28/10 Heroism Through Choice When people think of heroes, they often think of muscle bound men in spandex with unrealistic powers of flight, strength, or x-ray vision. But in real life, heroes are often determined based on the smallest of situations and their outcomes. In both of the stories I have chosen (A&P and Harrison Bergeron), the main characters are classified as heroes because of their willingness to defy the authoritive forces around them, whether it be the store manager Lengel in A&P or the Handicapper General in Harrison Bergeron, as well as their willingness to strike out on their own instead of adhering to social norms. In Harrison Bergeron, the main character Harrison stands up to a society that attempts to dull his individual qualities by ripping off his physical handicaps and temporarily liberating all of the oppressed people watching the television for a moment. In A&P, the main character stands up to his dreary, Sunday school teaching boss when he feels as though his boss has embarrassed three female customers in a grocery store. Both Harrison and the cashier pay the price for their defiance (Harrison gets killed and the cashier loses his job), and it is because of the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s selflessness that the actions appear heroic. Both characters fit the definition of a hero, the cashier for his willingness to lose his job over what he deems an inappropriate action by his manager, and Harrison for ripping off (literally) the shackles that his society has placed on him in a fight to show his individualism. The fact that they performed these actions with no thought towards their own outcome helps outline their true heroic qualities. In the story A&P, the cashier exhibits a heroic quality when he quits his job due to a perceived insult made by his manager to three young ladies. While it first appears to be a dangerous and rash decision (quitting your job over an apparent slight made by your manager to a girl you do not know), the underlying factors actually make this a very heroic choice. When the cashier quits the A&P, he is not quitting as a direct result of that one insult but rather he is quitting because he does not want to work in what he views as a strict and religious workplace. After he quits, he looks back and sees Ã¢â¬Å"Lengel in [his] place in the slot, checking the sheep through. Ã¢â¬ and then goes on to describe Lengel by saying Ã¢â¬Å"His face was dark gray and his back stiff, as if heÃ¢â¬â¢d just had an injection of iron. Ã¢â¬ (Updike 529). When he sees Lengel in this state, he realizes that moments before that had been him. At the end of the story, the cashier becomes a symbol of the thoughts of many young people during the late fifties and early sixties. He does not want to work in the same dreary place for his whole life. He does not want to be just like his parents and Lengel. And despite that fact that he knows it will be hard, he makes the decision to strike out on his own, and consequently to fight back against what he views as a dreary and depressing reality. That is a hard decision to make, and a heroic one as well. As a result of his actions, the cashier in A&P not only commits a heroic gesture, he also becomes a symbol of the change that was taking place in the late fifties and early sixties. Many young people at that point in time were breaking away from what their parents were doing and were bravely striking off onto their own paths, just like the hero in our story. The overall theme of the story mirrors the same path, showing the drear and the tension and the uncertainty that crept into the American conscious following the start of the cold war and the adolescent urge to do something better than what ones parents did. The cashier represents many of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s younger generation in that aspect. In the story Harrison Bergeron, the main character is a Ã¢â¬Å"genius and an athleteÃ¢â¬ and is sent to jail for Ã¢â¬Å"suspicion of plotting to overthrow the government. Ã¢â¬ (Vonnegut 536). He then breaks out of jail and declares on national television that he is the emperor. Now in our society, these actions would be considered those of a madman or a lunatic. But in his society, HarrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are very heroic. When Harrison rips off his handicaps and declares to the world he is emperor, he represents the idea that individualism and competition are superior to similarity and monotony. His actions also represent the destruction of the limitations that society has attempted to place on him just because he was different. Also, the fact that he did this and was then killed makes it even more heroic. This shows us that HarrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s real intent was not to simply take over the world, but rather his intent was to show everyone that they could be different and they could fight the limitations imposed on them. The theme of this story is one of oppression and normalcy, and idea that Harrison attempts to destroy. Harrison becomes a symbol of freedom and liberation, showing us as readers that it is possible to break free of social normalcy despite the possibly grave consequences. In both Harrison Bergeron and A&P the main characters in the story are considered heroic for their willingness to stand up against authority and their ability to commit what they perceive as Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ actions regardless of the consequences they face. In both stories society is a dull, oppressive place, and the characters fight against the oppression in their own unique ways. And ultimately each character suffers a consequence as a result of their actions. But despite these consequences, which in the story were apparent before the characters committed their actions, both characters made their choices based on what they believed was right. This is why the cashier and Harrison are both heroic figures in their stories. Works Cited 1. Updike, John. _A&P. Literature and its Writers. Ed. _Ann Charters, Samuel Charters. Bedford/St. Martins, Boston. 2009. 2. Vonnegut, Kurt. _Harrison Bergeron. Literature and its Writers. _Ed. Ann Charters, Samuel Charters. Bedford/St Martins, Boston. 2009.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
* INTRODUCTION: SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES is a geographical region that has economic and other laws that are more free-market oriented than a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s typical or national laws. Ã¢â¬Å"NationwideÃ¢â¬ laws may be suspended inside a special economic zone. The category Ã¢â¬ËSEZÃ¢â¬â¢ covers the following: * free trade zones (FTZ), * export processing Zones (EPZ) * free Zones (FZ) * industrial parks or industrial estates (IE) * free ports * free economic zones * urban enterprise zones Usually the goal of a structure is to increase foreign direct investment by foreign investors, typically an international business or a multinational corporation (MNC), development of infrastructure and to increase the employment. India was one of the first countries in Asia to recognize the effectiveness of the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) model in promoting exports, with AsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s first EPZ set up in Kandla in 1965. In order to overcome the shortcomings experienced on account of the multiplicity of controls and clearances; absence of world-class infrastructure, and an unstable fiscal regime and with a view to attract larger foreign investments in India, the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) Policy was announced in April 2000. * HISTORY: The world first known instance of SEZ have been found in an industrial park set up in Puerto Rico in 1947. In the 1960s, Ireland and Taiwan followed suit, but in the 1980s China made the SEZs gain global currency with its largest SEZ being the metropolis of Shenzhen.From 1965 onwards, India experimented with the concept of such units in the form of Export Processing Zones (EPZ). But a revolution came in 2000, when Murlisone Maran, then Commerce Minister, made a tour to the southern provinces of China. After returning from the visit, he incorporated the SEZs into the Exim Policy of India. Five year later, SEZ Act (2005) was also introduced and in 2006 SEZ Rules were formulated. The SEZ Act, 2005, was an important bill to be passed by the Government of India in order to instill confidence in investors and signal the GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to a stable SEZ policy regime and with a view to impart stability to the SEZ regime thereby generating greater economic activity and employme nt through their establishment, a comprehensive draft SEZ Bill prepared after extensive discussions with the stakeholders. A number of meetings were held in various parts of the country both by the Minister for Commerce and Industry as well as senior officials for this purpose. The Special Economic Zones Act, 2005, was passed by Parliament in May, 2005 which received Presidential assent on the 23rd of June, 2005. The draft SEZ Rules were widely discussed and put on the website of the Department of Commerce offering suggestions/comments. Around 800 suggestions were received on the draft rules. After extensive consultations, the SEZ Act, 2005, supported by SEZ Rules, came into effect on 10 February 2006, providing for drastic simplification of procedures and for single window clearance on matters relating to central as well as state governments. The remaining part of India, not covered by the SEZ Rules, is known as the Domestic tariff area. Exports from Indian SEZ totalled 2.2 Trillion in 2009-10 fiscal. It grew by a stupendous 43% to reach 3.16 Trillion in 2010-11 fiscal. Indian SEZs have created over 840,000 jobs as of 2010-11. Within SEZs, a units may be set-up for the manufacture of goods and other activities including processing, assembling, trading, repairing, reconditioning, making of gold/silver, platinum jewellery etc. As per law, SEZ units are deemed to be outside the customs territory of India. Goods and services coming into SEZs from the domestic tariff area or DTA are treated as exports from India and goods and services rendered from the SEZ to the DTA are treated as imports into India. Currently, there are about 143 SEZs (as of June 2012) operating throughout India and an additional 634 SEZs (as of June 2012) that have been formally/principally approved by the Government of India : State/Union Territory| Number of operational Special Economic Zones (June 2012) * BENEFITS OF SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES: * Providing state-of-the-art infrastructure. * Access to a large well-trained and skilled work force * Incentives which include 100% income tax exemption for a period of five years and an additional 50% tax exemption for two years thereafter. * 100% FDI is also provided in the manufacturing sector. * Exemption from industrial licensing requirements and no import license requirements is also given to the SEZ units. Attractive incentive and great investment opportunities have attractive many business tycoons to step into the SEZ all over the country. The first step was taken by the Mahindra World City at Chennai. The SEZ was promoted by Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd and later on by the Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation. Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd holds 89% equity in the same. Later on, Reliance Industries also signed a pact with the Haryana government for setting up of the Rs. 25,000 crore multi products SEZ near Gurgaon in 2006. * OBLIGATIONS UNDER SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES: It is compulsory for every SEZ units in India to achieve positive net foreign exchange earning as per the formula given in paragraph Appendix 14-II (para 12.1) of Handbook of Procedures, Vol.1. For this particular purpose, a legal undertaking is required which has to be executed by a separate unit of the Development Commissioner. The is responsible for providing periodic reports to the Development Commissioner and Zone Customs as provided in Appendix 14-I F of the Handbook of Procedures, Vol.1 * ROLE OF STATE GOVERNMENT IN ESTABLISHMENT OF SEZ UNITS: State Governments play a very active role to play in the establishment of SEZ unit. Any proposal for setting up of SEZ unit in the Private / Joint / State Sector is routed through the concerned State government who in turn forwards the same to the Department of Commerce with its recommendations for consideration. Before recommending any proposals to the Ministry of Commerce & Industry (Department of Commerce), the States Government properly checks all the necessary inputs such as water, electricity, etc required for the establishment of SEZ units. The State Government has to forward the proposal with its recommendation within 45 days from the date of receipt of such proposal to the Board of Approval. The applicant also has the option to submit the proposal directly to the Board of Approval. Representative of the State Government. * ADVANTAGES: * Allowed to carry forward losses. * No license required for import made under SEZ units. * Duty free import or domestic procurement of goods for setting up of the SEZ units. * Goods imported/procured locally are duty free and could be utilized over the approval period of 5 years. * Exemption from customs duty on import of capital goods, raw materials, consumables, spares, etc. * Exemption from Central Excise duty on the procurement of capital goods, raw materials, and consumable spares, etc. from the domestic market. * Exemption from payment of Central Sales Tax on the sale or purchase of goods, provided that, the goods are meant for undertaking authorized operations. * Exemption from payment of Service Tax. * The sale of goods or merchandise that is manufactured outside the SEZ (i.e., in DTA) and which is purchased by the Unit (situated in the SEZ) is eligible for deduction and such sale would be deemed to be exports. * No routine examination by Customs officials of export and import cargo. * Setting up Off-shore Banking Units (OBU) allowed in SEZs. * OBUÃ¢â¬â¢s allowed 100% income tax exemption on profit earned for three years and 50 % for next two years. * Since SEZ units are considered as Ã¢â¬Ëpublic utility servicesÃ¢â¬â¢, no strikes would be allowed in such companies without giving the employer 6 weeks prior notice in addition to the other conditions mentioned in the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947. * The Government has exempted SEZ Units from the payment of stamp duty and registration fees on the lease/license of plots. * External Commercial Borrowings up to $ 500 million a year allowed without any maturity restrictions. * DISADVANTAGES: * Revenue losses because of the various tax exemptions and incentives. * Many traders are interested in SEZ, so that they can acquire at cheap rates and create a land bank for themselves. * Terms and conditions: Only units approved under SEZ scheme would be permitted to be located in SEZ. 1. The SEZ units shall abide by local laws, rules, regulations or laws in regard to area planning, sewerage disposal, pollution control and the like. They shall also comply with industrial and labor laws as may be locally applicable. 2. Such SEZ shall make security arrangements to fulfill all the requirements of the laws, rules and procedures applicable to such SEZ. 3. The SEZ should have a minimum area of 1000 hectares and at least 35 % of the area is to be earmarked for developing industrial area for setting up of processing units. 4. Minimum area of 1000 hectares will not be applicable to product specific and port/airport based SEZs.. * FUNCTIONING/ SET UP OF SEZ: The functioning of SEZs is governed by a three-tier administrative set-up. The Board of Approval is the apex body and is headed by the Secretary, Department of Commerce. The Approval Committee at the Zone level deals with approval of units in the SEZs and other related issues. * Board of Approval The Board of Approval has been constituted by the Central Government in exercise of the powers conferred under the SEZ Act. All the major decisions are taken by the Board of Approval. The Board of Approval has 19 Members * Unit Approval Committee All the request for setting up of units in the SEZ is approved at the Zone level by the Approval Committee consisting of Development Commissioner after a discussion with the Customs Authorities and representatives of State Government. All post approval clearances in matters related to importer-exporter code number, change in the name of the company or implementing agency; broad banding diversification, etc. are given at the zonal level by the Development Commissioner. A separate units is also there who monitor the performance of the SEZ units on a periodic basis and is governed by the Approval Committee. SEZ units are liable for penal action under the provision of Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act, in case of any violation in the rules formulated by the Approval Committee. * Development Commissioner SEZs / EOUs, each zone are headed by a Development Commissioner, who is also heading the Unit Approval Committee. Development Commissioner is the nodal officer for SEZs and help in resolution of problem, if any, faced by the units or developer. In all SEZÃ¢â¬â¢s, the statutory functions are controlled by the Government while the rest of the operations are privatized. * DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FREE TRADE ZONES(FTZ) AND SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES(SEZ): A free trade zone (FTZ) , also called foreign-trade zone, formerly free port is an area within which goods may be landed, handled, manufactured or reconfigured, and re exported without the intervention of the customs authorities. Only when the goods are moved to consumers within the country in which the zone is located do they become subject to the prevailing customs duties. Free-trade zones are organized around major seaports, international airports, and national frontiersÃ¢â¬âareas with many geographic advantages for trade. . The worldÃ¢â¬â¢s first Free Trade Zone was established in Shannon, County Clare, and Shannon Free Zone. This was an attempt by the Irish Government to promote employment within a rural area, make use of a small regional airport and generate revenue for the Irish economy. It was hugely successful, and is still in operation today. The number of worldwide free-trade zones proliferated in the late 20th century A Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is a geographical region that has economic and other laws that are more free-market-oriented than a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s typical or national laws. Ã¢â¬Å"NationwideÃ¢â¬ laws may be suspended inside a special economic zone. PROMINENT EXPORT PROCESSING ZONES IN INDIA: * Kandla Free Trade Zone (KAFTZ), Kandla, Gujarat * Santa Cruz Electronic Export Processing Zone (SEEPZ), S. Cruz, Maharashtra * Cochin Export Processing Zone (CEPZ), Cochin, Kerala * Falta Export Processing Zone (FEPZ), Falta,West Bengal * Madras Export Processing Zone (MEPZ), Madras, Tamil Nadu * Noida Export Processing Zone (NEPZ), Noida, Uttar Pradesh * Visakhapatnam Export Processing Zone (VEPZ), Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh * While the Santa Cruz Electronics Export Processing Zone (SEEPZ) is meant exclusively for the exports of electronics and gems and jewelry, all other zones are multi-product zones. 100% foreign equity is welcome in EOUs and EPZs * INDUSTRIAL PARKS: Industrial parks are usually located on the edges of, or outside the main residential area of a city, and normally provided with good transportation access, including road and rail. One such example would be the large number of Industrial Estates located along The River Thames in The Thames Gateway area of London. Industrial parks are usually located close to transport facilities, especially where more than one transport modes coincide: highways, railroads, airports, and ports. This idea of setting land aside through this type of zoning is based on several concepts: * To be able to concentrate dedicated infrastructure in a delimited area to reduce the per-business expense of that infrastructure. Such infrastructure includes roadways, railroad sidings, ports, high-power electric supplies (often including three-phase power), high-end communications cables, large-volume water supplies, and high-volume gas lines. * To be able to attract new business by providing an integrated infrastructure in one location. * Eligibility of Industrial Parks for benefits * To set aside industrial uses from urban areas to try to reduce the environmental and social impact of the industrial uses. * To provide for localized environmental controls that are specific to the needs of an industrial area. * CRITICISM: Different industrial parks fulfill these criteria to differing degrees. Many small communities have established industrial parks with only access to a nearby highway, and with only the basic utilities and roadways. Public transportation options may be limited or non-existent. There may be few or no special environmental safeguards. * FREE ZONES: Free Zone are a geographically distinguished areas, possess a particular laws and regulation varies than those applied within the state. Free zone investors enjoy the particular incentives and privileges associated to these areas, such as: * Freedom to initiate any legal form for the activity * The investor has the freedom to determine prices of his services or products and the profit margin he desires. * The investor enjoys the exemption of Capital assets assets, productions supplies and imports and exports from customs, sales or any type of taxes or fees.
University of Missouri Ã¢â¬â St. Louis Fourth grade pupils participated in three hands-on lessons designed to further conceptual apprehension of country and margin. to able to mensurate them in units and to be able to separate them from each other within the same figure. Students worked with a university module member and schoolroom instructor to build forms on geoboards. reassign the forms to stud paper and count units in and around each form. StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ misconceptions and deficiency of direct experience were apparent in replies on the pretest ; conceptual development was improved as evidenced on replies to post trial every bit good as on dot paper drawings. Although expressions were non developed in the lessons. pupils could explicate how steps were found every bit good as arrive at the right sum at the completion of the unit Area and margins were identified on forms kids constructed and drew. including their initials. Introduction How do pupils larn to understand. step and distinguish country and margin? Over the past several decennaries. research workers such as Jerome Bruner ( 1960 ) and Jean Piaget ( 1970 ) . found that conceptual development is possible when pupils are given chances to believe. ground and use mathematics to existent universe state of affairss at appropriate acquisition degrees ; pupils need to build their ain cognition in context as they engage in tactile experiences. Because most 2nd to fifth grade school students ground at the Ã¢â¬Å"concrete operational phase. Ã¢â¬ ( Copeland. 1984. p. 12 ) hands-on acquisition chances are indispensable to heightening the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s mathematical thought. Ã¢â¬Å"Students should be actively involved. pulling on familiar and accessible contexts ; Students should develop schemes for gauging the margins and countries of forms as they Ã¢â¬Å"measure objects and spaceÃ¢â¬ in familiar milieus ( NCTM. 2000. p. 171 ) . Using manipulatives to further studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ measurement sense of country and margin is supported in the NCTM papers every bit good as mathematics instruction literature ( Outhred. L. A ; Mitchelmore. M. . 2000 ) . The constructs of country and margin are hard for pupils to hold on. as reported in the TIMSS consequences ( NCTM. 1997 ) since 4th graders scored less good in the country of measuring than they did in subjects of whole Numberss. informations representation. geometry. forms. dealingss and map and fractions and proportionality. The National Assessment of Educational Progress ( NAEP. 1999 ) . reported that merely 35. 4 % of nine-year-oids were successful in happening the margin of a rectangle. merely 37 % could happen the country of a rectangle and that 4th and 8th class pupils sometimes confuse countr y and margin. Carpenter. T. P. . Lindquist. M. M. . Brown. C. A. Kouba. V. L. Silver. E. A. A ; Swafford. J. O. ( 1998 ) found that this deficiency of understanding continued to impact kids in older classs. This article is written to depict a undertaking designed to work with 4th graders on these critically of import but confusing measuring and geometry subjects. The lessons focused on developing conceptual apprehension of country and margin. numbering their step and so comparing them in a common scene in order to place and separate them from each other. Project Overview A St. Louis Public School District instructor and a University of Missouri-Saint Louis mathematics instruction professor worked together during the 2002-2003 school twelvemonth in a district-university fionded concerted undertaking to develop and team Teach lessons about country and margin. Geometry and measurement subjects were chosen because the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s intermediate class pupils scored at less than desired degrees on pr ovince and territory standardized mathematics trials administered during the old spring semester. The category consisted of 16 males and 11 females and participated in the undertaking for four hebdomads. An assessment instrument was administered in an attempt to find studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ construct and accomplishment degrees of cognition about country and margin of simple closed plane geometric figures before forma! direction began. The inquiries were both conceptual and procedural in nature and are found in Table 1. as are sample replies. Tablet: Pre-assessment 1. What does perimeter intend? Sample replies: It means length something ; It means to touch something ; it is a math word. 2. How do you mensurate perimeter? Sample replies: You need to happen a large twine ; you canÃ¢â¬â¢t mensurate it ; you add something ; you multiply something. 3. Where is perimeter found in the existent universe? Sample replies: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s truly non in the existent universe. merely in the books ; itÃ¢â¬â¢s found on the map ; itÃ¢â¬â¢s my fencing. 4. What does country intend? Sample replies: The topics we learn ; something in the geometry chapter ; the infinite around a square ; the infinite in a line. 5. How do you mensurate country? Sample replies: With a swayer ; there is a expression ; we havenÃ¢â¬â¢t learned that yet ; with your manus. 6. Where do you happen country? Sample replies: In the book ; in a narrative ; in a spelling list ; in a house. 7. Why do you necessitate to cognize about country and margin? Sample replies ; for the trial ; for following twelvemonth ; the instructor says we have to ; to mensurate material. hello measuring the consequences of the pretest. the instructors discovered that many pupils frequently confused their apprehension of country with that of margin. Although many pupils could declaim expressions. peculiarly for happening the step of country. the scholars were unable to explicate why that expression Ã¢â¬Å"worked. Ã¢â¬ Some pupils could non remember which portion of a figure was the country and which was the margin. After analysing the consequences. the instructors designed three lessons. The first would supply chances to advance apprehension of the constructs for Ã¢â¬Å"perimeterÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"areaÃ¢â¬ in relation to existent geometric figures. Following pupils would larn to mensurate margins and countries in the same figure. The 3rd lesson focused on measuring studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to separate the concepts and to happen the measurings within the same geometric figure. Understanding the geometric footings and meaningfully separating them from each other w ithin the same form were the ends of the undermentioned lessons. Lesson One: Margin and Area Concepts The first lesson dealt with the constructs of margin and country. Students were asked to see constructing a pen for a pet in the pace or place so that they could get down to team with a existent universe application inquiry or enquiry. Learners were to find how to denominate the penÃ¢â¬â¢s location and what sort of infinite they wanted. in footings of grass. asphalt or soil. to cover the fioor of the pen. Students were given objects such as books. pencils. scissors and paste sticks and asked to follow around them on field paper to see the thought of a environing boundary line or margin. Because the names of objects can non be discovered. as such. and because footings are most efficaciously understood when taught at the same time with hands-on experiences ( Sheffield. Cruikshank. 2000 ) . pupils were asked if they knew the term for the outside boundary lines that had merely been traced. After several conjectures. pupils were told that the geometr ic term for boundary was Ã¢â¬Å"perimeter. Ã¢â¬ A treatment ensued refering the demand to larn about margin. Students suggested assorted forms the boundaries could take on for the enclosures plarmed for the pets. To develop an apprehension of country. pupils began by sing the infinite within the boundary of a plane figure. Reynolds and Wheatly ( 1996 ) identified five degrees of imagination believed to be of import in explicating childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s actions in pulling coverings of parts on isometric documents. The first degree. that of building an image of the given form. was accounted for as pupils shaded the infinite inside the boundaries of the books. as pencils. scissors and paste sticks they had merely traced. Students so moved a manus over the surface of the points. The term Ã¢â¬Å"areaÃ¢â¬ was associated with this infinite so that experience preceded and so was connected to the symbol which was the word. A argument ensued about the most suited surfaces that might cover the floor ofthe pet pen. Geoboard Experiences: Margin Because geoboards provide a manner to visually stand for forms. the manipulative was chosen to supply hands-on experience for go oning to develop conceptual apprehension of both margin and country. Working with geobands and one geoboard per groups of three or four kids. pupils were asked to organize a closed. straight-sided form that represented a type of enclosure for a pet. Students shared their work with other groups. demoing the margins of their created figure by following around their forms with their fingers. The geoboards were traded and each pupil had an opportimity to thumb follow the margin of the form formed by another group. Geoboard Experiences: Area Next. the pupil groups formed geoband figures of favourite playthings or objects they liked at place. Computers were chosen by 80 % ofthe pupils. Geoboard figures were shared among the groups as pupils enjoyed thinking the names of each form. Each pupil so cut a piece of paper to put over the infinite within the boundary ofthe created form. Students identified that infinite as Ã¢â¬Å"areaÃ¢â¬ and a connexion was made between the word and the existent infinite inside the boundaries of the traced existent universe forms. This connexion was a powerful learning experience for pupils. To travel scholars to the pictural degree of abstraction ( Bruner. 1960 ) . dot paper was distributed. Students drew the geoboard form for a favored enclosure on the dot paper with a image of an carnal inside the form or enclosure. Students highlighted the margin lines on their documents with one colour and lightly shaded the country within the figure with another colour. Teachers circulated about the room to measure the work. The lesson concluded by holding pupils write the word Ã¢â¬Å"perimeterÃ¢â¬ o utside their figure and the word Ã¢â¬Å"areaÃ¢â¬ within it. Lesson Two: Count Perimeter Units The end ofthe 2nd lesson was to enable pupils to understand and go skilled at mensurating margin and country. Length is an property that can be measured straight ( Jensen. 1993 ) . Students were told that each unit ofthe fencing for their favored enclosure would be $ 1. 00 and asked what they could make to find the entire cost. Students replied that they needed to happen the length of the fencing they would necessitate. or the length ofthe margin. To happen how many units to number to happen the length of the margin. scholars foremost connected two back-to-back prongs with one geoband in a horizontal or perpendicular way to call the distance between two prongs as one unit in step. Perimeter was counted in generic Ã¢â¬Å"unitsÃ¢â¬ in order to concentrate entirely on the construct of length instead than standard unit labels. With that cognition. pupils worked in braces to make forms for the pet pens. Using the unit length as the distance between two prongs. pupils counted the figure of units around the figures. Eacb brace of pupils traced around the boundary of the form. numeration and describing the entire Numberss of units found. Students were asked which groupÃ¢â¬â¢s enclosure would necessitate the most or least sum of fencing in footings of unit length. Findingss were compared provide another position and degree of abstraction. Examples of these forms are found in Figure 1. As pupils counted units of margin. instructors noticed that some scholars had jobs when numbering around a comer of a figure ; merely one side of a square was included as a unit and so perimeter count fell abruptly of the existent measuring. This misinterpretation was remediated when the instructors moved about the room observing and oppugning studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ logical thinking and mensurating techniques. Two pupils who counted right explained their schemes to the category. This information facilitated category treatment in which pupils could show their correct and wrong responses. Some misinterpretations were rathe r apprehensible to the category and could he remediated rapidly. For illustration. one pupil thought that he should number merely the sides but no comers and found his measuring to be excessively low and another multiplied the length by the breadth count and happening the sum conflicted with the figure found by numbering the units on the boundary line. That pupil confused margin with the country expression that had been memorized. Students created extra forms to happen margins ; a category treatment in which pupils shared consequences and concluding followed this activity. Figure 1: Which Enclosure Requires the Least Amount of Fencing? Counting Area Students were asked why happening the size ofthe pen country would be of import to them and their pet. How would the size ofthe country affect the manner they would construct the enclosure? During the category treatment. some pupils suggested that the sum of country would state them how much of their pace they could utilize. how much room their pet could play in or how much flooring they could afford. if the country were to be covered with some stuff. Methods of mensurating the country of the schoolroom objects were discussed. Some pupils suggested taking the documents on which objects were traced and puting them on top of each other for direct comparing. When that was done. a list was made ofthe countries from largest to smallest by posting the documents on a bulletin board. Students were so asked how they could mensurate and compare big infinites such as the floor. door. ceiling or a favored enclosure. The geoboard was distributed to assist work out this job. Students used one geoband to envelop one square unit within a geoboard Ã¢â¬â created figure for the pet pen. Each internal square was counted as one unit of country. Care was taken that pupils did non overlap or breach the internal square units. All the internal squares that were enclosed within the form were counted. Extra forms were created on the geoboards and traded so that each group covered and counted the internal infinite of another groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ figure. The countries were reported by each group in footings of the figure of internal squares so that pupils would avoid thought of country merely as the memorized expression of length x breadth Ã¢â¬â country. Ã¢â¬Å"Premature usage of expression can take to work without intending Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ( Van deWalle 1994. 332 ) . Shapes were once more transferred to stud paper and the step ofthe country was recorded inside each form as pupils counted the internal squares. Last. pupils were asked if there were a connexion between the breadth and length of their figure and the country count. Several pupils stated that the length count was a manner to Ã¢â¬Å"keep trackÃ¢â¬ of how many perpendicular columns they saw within the figure. If they multiplied the figure of perpendic ular columns by the sum of squares within each of those columns. they Ã¢â¬Å"got the country count. Ã¢â¬ The lesson concluded with a treatment of the difference between country and margin parts of the same form. StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ accounts of what the difference is and how they know one from the other are found in Table 2. Table 2: Post-assessment 1. What does perimeter intend? Sample replies: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the line around a form ; itÃ¢â¬â¢s how I know what the form is ; itÃ¢â¬â¢s a line I measure. 2. How do you mensurate perimeter? Sample replies: With a swayer ; you count the Markss on the swayer all around the form ; with grid paper 3. Where is perimeter found in the existent universe? Sample replies: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the boundary in my pace ; itÃ¢â¬â¢s the fencing in my pace ; itÃ¢â¬â¢s how far around my book is ; itÃ¢â¬â¢s the lineation of my computing machine. 4. What does country intend? Sample replies: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the infinite inside a form ; itÃ¢â¬â¢s the portion inside the boundary ; itÃ¢â¬â¢s the portion I can rub my H and over in a form. 5. How do you mensurate country? Sample replies: By numbering squares inside a form ; with a swayer to number the units on a side ; by numbering the units up and down the rows. 6. Where do you happen country? Sample replies ; In the book ; inside a form ; the infinite in my pace at place. 7. Why do you necessitate to cognize about country and margin? Sample replies: for the trial ; for following twelvemonth ; to tel! what size something is ; to cognize what infinite something can suit in or how much fencing to purchase to set around a infinite for a pet. 8. What is the difference between country and margin? How do you cognize? Sample Answers: Perimeter is a line around an object and country is the infinite inside ; margin is a line around and country has squares to number how large it is ; I know from numbering the margin and the country in my lesson. Lesson Three: Distinguishing Between Area and Perimeter Students were engaged in placing and mensurating the country and margin constructs by chalk outing their first and/or last initial on dot paper during the concluding lesson. Working in braces. each pupil drew his or her first and/or last initial on the paper and so counted and recorded the margin and country of each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s initial. Students helped each other draw and count. Slanted line sections counted as about one and one half unit of length. Examples of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ initials are found in Figure 2. Some pupils had trouble enveloping merely one square in order to number country within a form. Teachers and equals helped those who found the shading and numeration of country squares to be hard. Figure 2: Drawing and Counting the Margin Appraisal and Evaluation At the decision of lesson three. pupils were asked the same inquiries that were posed at the start of the lesson one. Informal analysis of the post-lesson responses revealed that the pupils understood country and margin constructs and could find the difference between them more accurately. Building. drawing and measurement experiences that began at the concrete degree and progressed to representational activities provided rich chances for scholars to do the constructs their ain. Activities affecting believing about pets and pulling initials were a challenge and meaningful to the 4th graders. The lessons were about them! Conclusion Measurement and geometry are subjects in the simple school course of study that can be taught in a mode that encourages building of conceptual apprehension with direct experiences. Real universe applications are legion. gratifying and built-in to mathematics success in studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ go oning instruction every bit good as in day-to-day state of affairss. Understanding the difference between the constructs of country and margin is indispensable to working with building forms. higher degree job work outing. and applications to three dimensional figures and strong spacial sense. Clearly. memorising misunderstood expressions is a short term solution that does non supply for long term keeping. conceptual apprehension or procedural accomplishments. all vitally of import factors in studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ success and accomplishment throughout the field of mathematics. Mentions Bruner. J. ( 1960 ) . The procedure ofeducation. Cambridge. Ma: Harvard University Press. Copeland. R. W. ( 1984 ) . How kids learn mathematics: learning deductions of Piaget Ã¢â¬Ës research. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. 1984. Jensen R. J. ( Ed. ) ( 1993 ) . Research thoughts for the schoolroom: early childhood mathematics. New York: Simon A ; Shuster. Macmillan. 1993. Outhred. L. N. A ; Mitchelmore. M. C. ( 2000 ) . childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s intuitive apprehension of rectangular country measuring. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education n. 2. p. 144-167. Piaget. J. A ; Inheldr. B. ( 1970 ) . The childÃ¢â¬â¢s construct of geometry. New York: Basic Books. 1970. Reynolds. A. . A ; Wheatley. G. H. ( 1996 ) . Elementary studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ building and coordination of units in an country scene. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 27. 564. 581. National Assessment of Educational Progress ( 1999 ) . The nationÃ¢â¬â¢s study Card. ( On-line hypertext transfer protocol: //nces. erectile dysfunction. gov/nationsreportcrad/tabIes/LTT1999/ ittintro. asp National Council of Teachers of Mathematics ( 1997 ) . U. S. mathematics instructors respond to the Third International Mathematics and Science Study: Grade 4 consequences ( On-line ) . Available: hypertext transfer protocol: World Wide Web. nctm. org/new/release /timss-4Ã¢â¬â¢*Ã¢â¬â¢-pgO 1. htm. ( July 10. 2001 ) . . ( 2000 ) . Principles and criterions for school mathematics. Reston. VA: NCTM: Writer. Sheffield. L A ; CruikshankD. E. ( 2000 ) . Teachingand larning simple and in-between school mathematics. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Silver. E. A. A ; Kenney P. A. ( Eds. ) . ( 2000 ) . Consequences from the 7th mathematics appraisal of the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Reston. VA: NCTM. Van De Walle. J. A. ( 1994 ) . Elementary school mathematics. learning developmentally. New York and London: Longman Publishers.