Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Motivation to Help Essay

This paper discusses the social psychological perspective on helping. It tackles the factors that lead people to help other people and the theoretical basis on such actions. It also includes a reflection on the altruistic property in helping. Motivation to Help The murder of Kitty Genovese in 1964 as one of the most disturbing cases where almost 40 people were witnesses but none of them called the police in time to rescue her. This baffled social psychologists as to how this was possible. The result of their investigation was the formation of the concept of the Genovese Syndrome. This condition is theorized to exist on certain emergency situations where people encounter a diffusion of responsibility. This was because of the notion that there will be someone who will carry out the responsibility (Alex, 2008). On a personal account, an example of this behavior was observed in the sidewalk near a well-known shopping center. A lady, approximately aged 50 years was walking on the nearly crowded pavement when two men riding a motorcycle snatched her bag. It was not easily taken from her since she tried to defend herself and her belongings. The struggle made the two men shoot the lady until she was down on the sidewalk. The initial reaction of the people there was to run away from the scene. When the two men quickly left, the people slowly went towards the lady. Nobody helped until the lady screamed in pain. There are a number of factors that have resulted to the lack of responsiveness of the people on the victim. One of which is the bystander effect. Since there are more people in the area, the responsibility of helping the victim is divided among them. Each of these people had two choices of whether they should act or wait for someone to do it. Thus, the more people there are in the area means that people feel less obligated (â€Å"The Bystander Effect†, n. d. ). Also, the scream of the lady may have somehow alarmed the people around her, which may have motivated the some people to finally help her. Basically, there are five steps to helping or prosocial behavior. First of all, in order to help, there must be a realization that something is happening. It must also be interpreted as an emergency. The person who is to help must also feel the responsibility towards the situation. He must also know how he is going to help. Finally, the costs of helping are also assessed (Stocker, n. d. ). In this particular scenario, the five steps were evident. Although the initial reaction was to run because of the gun shot, people did realize that it was an emergency situation. However, because there were a lot of people, they did not have much responsibility for the situation because of the assumption that someone will act. When the lady screamed and the two men left, it was the time when someone helped, knowing that the costs are already low and it was no longer dangerous. There are many theories which explain why people are motivated to help. However, the most widely accepted theory on the subject is the theory of Victor Vroom, known as the expectancy theory. This simply states that people are motivated to help because they are expecting something in return such as a reward, or a good performance appraisal (Shah, n. d. ). Based on this theory, the act of helping may not be truly altruistic because of the tendency to expect for something in return. If the one helping does not want anything as a reward, it may be because of other outside factors such as his social image, religion, or the dictate of the society. Nevertheless, additional helped could have been offered in the situation, knowing the there were a lot of people in the situation. If all of them felt responsible for the incident, it is most likely that the crime would have been prevented. References Alex. (2008, February 13). The Genovese Syndrome: When Nobody Helps. Retrieved July 14, 2010, from Neatorama: http://www. neatorama. com/2008/02/13/the-genovese-syndrome-when-nobody-helps/ Shah, K. , & Shah, P. (n. d. ). Theories of Motivation. Retrieved July 14, 2010, from Laynetworks: http://www. laynetworks. com/Theories-of-Motivation. html# Stocker, S. (n. d. ). Social Psychology. Retrieved July 14, 2010, from http://webcache. googleusercontent. com/search? q=cache:P4aNe4_DzhsJ:www. spsp. org/student/intro/ppt/myers15. ppt+five+steps+to+prosocial+behavior&cd=4&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ph The Bystander Effect. (n. d. ). Retrieved July 14, 2010, from Changing Minds: http://changingminds. org/explanations/theories/bystander_effect. htm

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Causes of Tension Between Cuba and the United States Essay

On January 9, 1959, following their successful overthrow of the oppressive Batista regime, a band of freedom fighters, anchored by Fidel Castro, marched through the Cuban capital city of Havana. Upon his arrival, Castro immediately seized control of the Cuban government and declared himself the highest executive of the island nation, Premier of Cuba. In April of 1959, Castro visited the United States in order to gain support for his policies in leading Cuba. The majority of Americans warmly embraced Castro, â€Å"assuming that this charismatic leader would guide Cuba to democracy† (Cuba). Some Americans remained cautious in accepting Castro, however, primarily disturbed by his previously demonstrated socialist sympathies. In the following month, Americans were given reasons to become anti-Castro as the Premier took hold American owned sugar plantations, Cuba’s multi-national companies, and the nation’s petroleum holdings (Cuba). By the end of 1959, the nation beg an to show signs of Communist involvement. Communist affiliated groups took control of the nation’s military, bureaucracy, and labor movement, and Soviet interest in the island increased. In February of 1960, â€Å"Anastas Mikoyan, vice-prime minister of the Soviet Union, came to Cuba. . . . A major topic [of the meeting] was the Soviet Union’s purchase of Cuban sugar and [the Cuban] purchase of Russian oil† (Franqui 66). Following the meeting, the Soviet Union entered into a trade agreement with the USSR, causing the United States to drastically limit the import of Cuban sugar into the nation. In response, Cuba nationalized all remaining American properties and negotiated an expanded trade agreement and loans with the Soviets, causing the United States to break all diplomatic relations with the country (Cuba). Before the end of 1960, the USSR had begun sending military aid to the Cubans. (Cuba) â€Å"The U. S. government was by now convinced that Cuba had become a Communist state† (Dolan 92-93). The falling of Cuba into a Communist regime proved extremely important to the U. S., primarily due to Cuba’s proximity to the United States, only 90 miles. In addition, â€Å"there were reports that the Soviet Union intended to make a staging base out of Cuba for the  communization of the other Latin-American countries and rumors that construction projects inside Cuba appeared to be designed for launching missiles† (Rivero 170). To stop the spread of Communism in the Western Hemisphere, Americans felt that â€Å"the island’s government had to be toppled† (Dolan 93). Upon hearing from Cuban exiles that a great deal of unrest had been present on the island, Washington saw the time as ripe for an invasion attempt (Rivero 183). The U.S. government put the Central Intelligence Agency in charge of plotting the attempt, along with officers from the Pentagon. The goal of the CIA-planned attempt would be to mask American involvement in the coup, so that the United States could not encounter accusations of â€Å"illegally endangering the sovereignty of an established foreign government† (Dolan 93). The plan entailed using Cuban exiles to carry out an uprising, seemingly attempting to liberate their country. Following the planning of the invasion, the CIA utilized their Guatemalan bases in training 1,300 exiles (Dolan 93). News of the supposedly secret plan leaked to Castro, who â€Å"accused Washington of planning the worst sort of intervention in the island’s affairs† and damned the United States for â€Å"dropping the attitude of neutrality it had long professed in regard to Cuba† (93). The Premier put the island’s defense forces on alert and ordered them to prepare and be ready for an attack. On March 29, 1961, President John F. Kennedy gave the CIA permission to proceed with the launch the Cuban invasion. Changes were made to the plan however, the most important being the ban of U.S. air support of the campaign, excluding air attacks on three Cuban air bases (Rivero 184). Along with the ban came the necessity of â€Å"a simultaneous mass uprising by the Cuban people† (184); without mass popular support, the invasion was doomed to failure. Two days prior to the invasion, B-26 bombers attacked three crucial Cuban air bases, San Antonio, Cuba’s main base, Camp Liberty in Havana, Castro’s main headquarters, and the military airport at Santiago de Cuba (Rivero 184). A second wave of B-26 strikes was planned as well, but was called off by President Kennedy, who was suspected to have â€Å"felt that strong U.S. participation would threaten a war with Russia† (Dolan 95). The cancellation of the second group of air strikes left Castro with one-third of his air  force and the goal of destroying the entire air force unfulfilled. Two days after the air strikes took place, approximately 1,500 CIA-supported Cuban exiles landed near the Bay of Pigs. The men were accompanied by â€Å"old, unmarked American B-26 bombers that dropped leaflets urging the Cuban people to rise against Castro and join the attack force† (Dolan 93). The invaders assumed that the leaflets would draw the widespread support of Cubans unhappy with their government. In the three days in which the people would supposedly aid in holding off Castro’s forces, the invaders were to set up a provisional government and appeal for American help. From there, the United States would recognize the provisional government and intervene in overthrowing the Castro regime (93). The CIA plan assumed excessively, mostly due to the optimism derived from the agency’s previous successes in staging coups in Guatemala and Iran, and all of the invasion plans resulted in complete failure: â€Å"The expected assistance did not come from the island’s dissidents. On being hit by Castro’s air force, the attackers asked that U.S. Navy jets be sent to help them.† The planes, however, never appeared, due to the Kennedy-issued ban on U.S. air involvement (Dolan 95). After two days, Castro’s forces had thoroughly suppressed the attack, killing 150 of the men, and capturing approximately 1,200 of the attackers (95). According to the authors of Cuba and the United States: Troubled Neighbors, â€Å"Kennedy had never liked the idea† (Dolan 95) of an American-sponsored invasion of Cuba, mostly due to his belief that it would undoubtedly fail. The plan had been created under the Eisenhower administration, and Kennedy had little input in its creation. Nevertheless, the President allowed the â€Å"invasion† to occur, and â€Å"despite his opposition to the whole affair, he accepter full responsibility for its failure because he was in office at the time it was staged† (95). While Kennedy had been assured that the plan he approved would be both secret and successful, â€Å"he discovered too late that it was too large to remain secret and too small to succeed† (Wyden 310). Kennedy was greatly upset by the failure of the invasion, and he held himself personally responsible, for both the lives of the men who died as well as for the 1,200 men whom â€Å"his government had helped send to their imprisonment† (qtd. in 310). Kennedy viewed the failure as â€Å"the ultimate  failure of his career† (310), and from the defeat, â€Å"his prestige suffered a severe blow† (Dolan 96). About a year and a half later, however, â€Å"he was to regain that lost prestige† (96), in his impressive handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis. Works Consulted Cuba Exhibit – History. The Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza. 2001 . Dolan, Edward E., and Margaret M. Scariano. Cuba and the United States: Troubled Neighbors. New York: Franklin Watts, 1987. Franqui, Carlos. Family Portrait with Fidel. New York: Random House, 1984. Rivero, Nicholas. Castro’s Cuba: An American Dilemma. New York: Van Rees P, 1962. Sierra, J.A.. Timetable History of Cuba: After the Revolution. 27 Aug. 2001 <> Wyden, Peter. Bay of Pigs: The Untold Story. New York: Simon, 1979.

Monday, July 29, 2019

College Fly-In and Diversity Programs: A Complete List

Campus visits are a great way to learn about a college’s culture and determine whether it’s the right fit for you. Unfortunately, not every student can afford to visit every college on their list. If you’re unable to visit colleges for any reason, you should make sure to thoroughly review them online . However, for high-achieving, underrepresented students, there is an alternative. Some colleges offer fly-in or multicultural programs to high-school seniors who are low-income, first-generation, and/or students of color. Read on to learn about these programs and how to make the most of them. College fly-in programs are highly competitive college visitation programs for underrepresented students. Institutions fly students in to stay at their campuses for two or three days, allowing students who might not get a chance to visit otherwise to get a feel for the college and campus. In most cases, the college covers costs including transportation, room, and board or offer to reimburse you for some of your expenses associated with visiting their campus. Most colleges just fly in admitted students, but some offer the opportunity to prospective students. Examples include: Keep in mind that these programs are very competitive. To apply, you usually need to submit an application, essay, letter of recommendation, transcription with junior-year grades, and ACT/SAT scores. Below is a list of colleges and universities that offer some form of a fly-in program. There are several steps you should take to ensure that you’re making the most of this opportunity. It’s important to research the colleges thoroughly before attending the program. You want to make sure you’re truly interested in attending and understand what the college offers. Plus, you should figure out what activities, courses, and other aspects of the school you want to investigate further. In general, the college will cover transportation, room, and board for your stay. Most colleges are unlikely to cover your parents’ transportation and costs if they want to come with you, though there are some exceptions, such as Vanderbilt . Research which classes you want to observe and make appointments to talk to admissions counselors and financial aid officers before you leave. When you’re on campus, walk around and get a sense of the culture and atmosphere. Attend events and talk to students about their experiences. You want to get a sense of your fit with the college and make sure you can see yourself there. Fly-in programs can significantly ease the financial burden of the college process. If you qualify, make sure to take advantage of this important resource. When you sign up for our program, we carefully   pair you with the perfect admissions specialist based on your current academic and extracurricular profile and the schools in which you’re interested. Your personal application specialist will help you with branding, essays, and interviews, and provide you with support and guidance in all other aspects of the application process. How To Balance SAT Test Prep With School Schedule Balancing SAT prep with a busy school schedule, never mind extracurriculars, can be challenging. You may think that you can ease up on prep in favor of your schoolwork, but don’t fall into that trap. You need to succeed in both arenas; colleges will be consider your GPA and you test scores. Here’s your plan to help you balance test prep with your schoolwork—and excel at both. You may already have an existing action plan for high school, and test prep should be part of it. (For tips on building one, check out Your Ultimate Guide on How to   Make a High School Action Plan .) Writing down what you need to accomplish and why will help motivate you to put in the time and effort. Be specific; for instance, commit to a certain number of hours of studying for the SAT each week. You should also be specific in terms of areas you need to hone. If you’re weaker in reading comprehension, for instance, commit to a number of hours focusing on learning tricks for reading difficult passages. Once you determine your target score, you can figure out what you need to study and how much time should commit. Use your PSAT scores or a diagnostic test to help you set a realistic score goal . This can also help you identify weak areas , so you can concentrate on them the most. Remember that you need to be realistic. You will probably improve if you stick to your prep plan, but it’s unlikely that you’re going to go from a 1000 to a 1570. Instead, aim for a more reachable goal, like a 1250. Once you reach it, you can inch it up further. While your overarching plan should include specifics, the reality of your day-to-day schedule will become clearer in the moment. Invest in a planner , or use a calendar to keep track of your daily commitments. For instance, if you have a big test coming up, factor in the number of hours you need to study for it each day. Also factor in test prep. You might, for example, note when you want to take a complete practice test, or add in half an hour of practice on Khan Academy’s app . Figure out when you want to take the SAT, using this guide to help you decide. Compare it to your school commitments, seeing when you have big tests and projects due. You probably won’t have as much time to prepare for the SAT in the weeks you’re working on school assignments, so plan accordingly. Make sure you set aside time to make up for lags in preparation. You’ll be able to stick to your plan more easily if you start early . That way, you’ll have time to understand your weaknesses and develop strategies for overcoming them. You also need to make your plan realistic, just as when you’re setting your score goals. In other words, don’t plan for six hours of studying in one day when you have school; that’s just not possible. You’re more likely to stick to your plan if it’s doable. Use time management strategies to allow yourself to get everything done. If you share your plan with family and friends , someone else is holding you accountable. You might ask them to hold you accountable, but remember that the ultimate responsibility is yours. You should be holding yourself accountable, too. Set reminders on your phone, and tell yourself why this is important. You might also ask your parents to help you stay on track, without nagging, of course. Our students see an average increase of 250 points on their SAT scores. You should make an effort to follow your plan as closely as you can, but remember that it’s not set in stone. Things might happen to make you alter your plan, such as tests you don’t know about now or family circumstances, so you need to be willing to adapt. You’ll also want to reevaluate based on your comfort with your scores. For instance, you might want to retake the SAT. (Check out Should You Retake the SAT for tips on how to decide.) Read you score report, and pay attention to weaknesses. That way, you can adjust your plan accordingly and improve for next time. You may have some work over the summer, but it’s probably a lot less than you have during the school year. Take advantage of this time to work on test prep. You’ll have more free time to really familiarize yourself with the layout, hone your weak areas, and practice. Read Seven Ways to Make SAT Test Prep Your Summer Focus to learn how you can do just that. Remember to take breaks and reward yourself for your hard work. Build these rewards into your study plan. After finishing a practice test or reaching a certain point on a project, you might have a snack or watch half an hour of TV. This will incentivize you to do the hard work you need to do. Just be strict with yourself; don’t let a 20-minute social media break turn into an hour. Remember to pay attention to self care, too. Don’t neglect your health and well-being in favor of cramming or overworking yourself. Not only will your body suffer, but your mind will, too. Make sure you’re eating properly, exercising, and getting enough sleep. Take plenty of breaks—they’ll help you retain information. The challenge of staying on track with SAT prep while keeping up with your schoolwork may seem difficult, but having a plan and following through can ease the burden. Remember that the SAT is something most college-bound students take, and many have survived this obstacle. Be strict with yourself, but don’t neglect your health and sleep in favor of studying. Both are important—and both should be your priority! Looking for some more help for acing the SAT? The SAT Tutoring Program will help you achieve top scores on your test. We’ll pair you with two private tutors, one for English and writing, and one for math and science. All of our tutors have scored in the 99th percentile on the section they are teaching and are chosen based on teaching skills and ability to relate to their students.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Industrial Applications of Computers Case Study

Industrial Applications of Computers - Case Study Example Profitable papermaking means continuous production with minimal deviations from quality specifications. While steady-state control performance is essential, the elimination of waste during transitions such as changes of grades and break recoveries is where the greatest economic gains can be achieved. As production rates rise, often stretching the design capacity of the paper machine, Quality Control Systems (QCS) allow the company to improve the efficiency and quality of the production. This is evident from the significant new developments in quality measurement and control since the introduction of cross direction (CD) control seen in the past years since the 1970s.For paperboard manufacturing using the paper machines, it is necessary to establish the control system that provides a high-mix, low-volume product production. Control parameters are the key component of optimizing the operation, and so the paperboard company should consider an advanced performing QCS. In many cases, the control parameters of paperboard production facilities are normally fixed to the same value using a typical product. Many of these paper production facilities operates in a high mix, low-volume condition because the equipment are consolidated and diverse products are produced to satisfy the end user’s request. Moreover, the paperboard production equipment is often disturbed by the processes of feed preparation or by auxiliary systems. It is for this reason that the control parameters require optimization.... Control parameters are the key component of optimizing the operation, and so the paperboard company should consider an advanced performing QCS. In many cases, the control parameters of paperboard production facilities are normally fixed to the same value using a typical product. Many of these paper production facilities operates in a high mix, low-volume condition because the equipment are consolidated and diverse products are produced to satisfy the end user’s request. Moreover, the paperboard production equipment is often disturbed by the processes of feed preparation or by auxiliary systems. It is for this reason that the control parameters require optimization by deploying a plug-and-play quality control system. Plug-and-play Quality Control System Network Diagram The plug-and-play QCS is a cost effective tool that is used to monitor and control the processes of producing the paperboards. The QCS will consist of a scanner that is driven by a logic controller that is progra mmable, measurement sensors that are network-ready and a station for operations which is connected to a high speed Ethernet network. The architecture provides unlimited connectivity that helps in configuring the system as part of the mill wide distributed control system for full integration into the business network (Oloufa & Thomas, 1999). The configured system featured an off-the-shelf software suite that is configured for high resolution cross the profiles of the equipment, providing historical trends, statistics as well as the supervisory controls of MD/CD. The QCS system is built with components that meet the standard of the industry providing a generic installation designed give self maintenance to the

Leadership and Motivation Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Leadership and Motivation - Assignment Example ese steps include identifying the important priorities, considering the ability and commitment of the available staff and application of the best situational leadership (Learn to be a leader, n.d.). For instance, a manager can determine the staffs level of maturity and competence and after that, adjust their leadership to support the least mature staff while offering the mature staff more room to operate with minimum support. A manager has to understand perfectly the key role of the human resources department (HR). A HR department ensures that an organization reaps benefits from its investment in its staff. Hence, performance can be hampered when an experienced executive assistant discovers that he/she earns the same amount of money as a newly hired janitor. To effectively correct the discrepancies in the payment of the employees, a newly appointed manager can initiate an employee performance appraisal (PA). The PA will enable the organization to make informed choices, such as the contribution of the executive assistant and the janitor to the organization. Once their contribution is analyzed and identified, the management can come up with an effective remuneration plan that matches the input and contribution of the individual employee (Daft, 2013). Specifically, the new manager can also employ rewarding and resourcing as specific HR strategies to address the situation. Through a reward policy, the organization would ensure that its best employees are rewarded for the great job that they are doing. This means that, even if the basic salary for the executive assistant and the janitor are equal, the executive assistant will receive a reward on top of their salary based on the successful application of their work. The company’s decision to offer semiannual bonuses is a good motivation strategy for its employees (Daft, 2013). If employed correctly, such a motivational tool can help in the retaining and motivation of the staff during the tough economic times. The

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Colonial america Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Colonial america - Essay Example 17th century but in 1664, the first legislation for slaves was passed by Maryland that said, all â€Å"Negroes or other slaves hereafter imported into the province shall serve for life, as should their children. It also stated that any white woman who forgot her status and married a slave would have to serve the master of her husband. All children born into such a union would be slaves as well (Middleton, pg. 324). Around 1680, there was an increase in the purchase of slaves since there were fewer whites to do the jobs. Another reason for the increase was the abolition of the Royal African Company monopoly of trade. Therefore slaves were used to grow crops and vegetables, to maintain livestock and also used as craft and industrial workers. The Quakers were the first group to take up the issue on slavery and its codes. The existing slave codes in the colonies deprived the slaves of their basic human rights while providing the opportunity to slaveholders to exercise ruthless and merciless control over their slaves. Another revolutionary leader, James Otis, called this as â€Å"the most shocking violation of the law of nature.† He too fought against slavery and in 1807 the Federal government put an end to the trading of slaves from Africa. Right through history, the people who held power tended to side track or marginalize the people who do not have any power. In the same way, they never failed to make use of the resources as well as the technologies of the people they dominate, but yet they have neglected to give due credit to them or even acknowledge them. This is mutual where Europeans and Indians are concerned. Before slavery was abolished, agriculture was the predominant occupation during the colonial period. Blacks as well as American Indian slaves were utilized to grow crops such as flax, apples and onions. They were also used in the production of dairy products, fish and whale oil which were very important commercial products and hence trade and commerce

Friday, July 26, 2019

Women in Antebellum America Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Women in Antebellum America - Essay Example Women acquired superiority in social matters, and their voice would thus be heard. Regarding the introduction of education for women, many women joined learning institutions to acquire relevant information which would enable, better their lives. The education provides to women enabled them rear their children properly as well as providing significance influence to their husbands. The same reasoning lead to the opening up of the teaching profession suitable for females since they were considered having moral superiority over men and were innately fit to handle children. The piety morality of women, as well as concern over families, presents the impetus into the involvement in antebellum movements’ reform. Additionally, education gave women the capacity to articulate problems they face, and eventually propose necessary alternatives. Reforms provided women with necessary ideologies, which facilitated the, establishment of this cause. More conservative work charity attracted the upper classes’ members; more radical functions including abolitionism, helped draw men and women from social groups of lower levels. However, reformers of a working -class indicated less integration to such movements. Despite the fact that women suffered divisions from religion affiliation, class, and marital status, they indicated uniqueness in mind in the capacity to help others, a concept which was translated into women’s moral superiority overpowering men. The concept of moral superiority boosted efforts to raise women’s political, economic, and legal position. Women, as well, contributed to the economy of the nation through taxation exercised on their earnings, given that their population was significantly high. The impact of religion was also evident in the history of American woman. The Divine Word (The Bible) puts it, â€Å"The wise women buildeth her house.† The implication of the wisdom in this

Thursday, July 25, 2019

MIDDLE RANGE NURSING THEORY Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

MIDDLE RANGE NURSING THEORY - Research Paper Example In the same way, it is necessary for nurses to understand the different concepts of nursing strategies and various psychological and philosophical aspects of quality nursing care. Theoretical frameworks including middle range theories clearly define the nursing standards for the modern world. This paper will provide an overview of the concept and evolution of Middle Range Theories of Nursing and their applicability in today’s healthcare scenario. Concepts: Origin and Development Middle range theories are precise and moderate, and possess limited number of variables; hence, they effectively define nursing care standards. To be specific, middle range theories can be effectively applied in the field of nursing research and practice as their practicality can be directly tested. To define, â€Å"mid-range theories stand midway between the all encompassing global grand theories that address the entire discipline and hypotheses and theories that are very specific to a particular phe nomenon or population† (Lenz, 2006, n.p). As compared to grand theories, Middle range theories are more concrete and narrow. To illustrate, they are written relatively at specific level with limited number of propositions and ideas. Theory of Human Caring (Watson), Theory of Interpersonal Relations (Peplau), and Theory of the Deliberative Nursing Process (Orlando) are some of the well known middle range nursing theories. With regard to the progress of middle range theories, they are based on the results derived from practice and research that can provide clear direction for casual practice and intellectual practice in the discipline further. The past century witnessed a notable level of progress in the middle range theories. Except a few, most of the middle-range theories have come directly from clinicians’ experience. The middle-range theory helps to mark certain condition of the related signs and future approach for symptom management in caring patients. The theory al so emphasis on the result of various expressions or conditions with regard to the patient’s performance, and encourages the clear evaluation of patient’s working outcomes. Lieher and Smith (1999), has listed â€Å"the relationship between the intellectual process and the source of content related to the development of middle-range theories†; they include â€Å"Inductive theory-building theory through practice, Deductive theory. Building from grand nursing theories, Combining existing nursing and non-nursing theories, and Developing theories from clinical practice guidelines â€Å" (Source: Approaches for generating middle range theory. Para. 1. As cited Peterson & Bredow, 2009, in p. 31). Middle range theories are of mainly three types; Middle-range descriptive theories, Middle-range predictive theories, and Middle-range explanatory theories. These variations could be analyzed on the basis of their characteristics and with most relevant examples. Among these, Middle-range descriptive theories usually encompass only a single main concept to classify a phenomenon. While doing so, it simply lists the generalities observed in individuals and groups, and these theories are normally tested by means of descriptive research. The interpersonal Relations (Peplau, 1952) is an example of a middle-range descriptive theory. Peplau’s theory focused on the therapeutic relationship between the nurse and the patient, which is termed as the Nurse-Client Relationship. In contrast, Middle-range expl

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Guns and Other Weapons in Schools Research Paper

Guns and Other Weapons in Schools - Research Paper Example The origins of capital punishment date back to ancient times, where it was used to punish and deter crime; and as a political tool, to suppress rebellion and dissent among the masses (Aiken 207). One of the most famous examples of capital punishment is the death of the philosopher Socrates, who was required to drink poison for heresy (Schabas, â€Å"The Death Penalty† 164). Seventh century Athens, meanwhile, decreed capital punishment for any and all proven crimes (Murrie, Anumba and Keesler 125). Regio cites that ancient Babylon also decreed capital punishment for certain crimes - though it is surprising that murder was not among these. Research also highlights the role of religion in the origin of capital punishment - Islam, for example, commanded capital punishment for offenses such as treason and rape; while Mosaic Law did the same for other crimes (Regio). By the eighteenth century, British colonies were enforcing the capital punishment for over two hundred different crim es (Murrie, Anumba and Keesler 125). This shows a varied and liberal use of the death penalty; it is possible to infer from this kind of use that the barriers to putting someone to death for crime till the nineteenth century, were anything but great. Reviewing literature on capital punishment highlights two striking features of capital punishment in ancient and medieval times: the lack of due legal process preceding it, and the brutality characterizing it. Burns demonstrates how the witch hunts of Europe are a classic example of both these features - between the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries, thousands were tortured and burned alive for practicing witchcraft, often after trials by ordeal - in a large number of cases, guilt was decided by submerging the accused in a body of water, and seeing whether the accused sank or floated (95). Jewish traditions included execution through stoning, crucifixion and sawing through convicts (Regio). The absence of an objective legal process i s also seen in the norm of torturing people who would not confess to their crimes; and executing criminals by boiling them - some for several hours - until they died (Regio). Researchers have argued that it is important to see all of this in context - olden times were different from the modern era, their societal laws and values built in an environment of fear, hardness and suspicion that had resulted from uncontrolled and rampant disease and death, as well as the difficulty of finding practical evidence (Schabas, â€Å"The Abolition of Death Penalty,† Burns 94) - but, whatever the debate on why capital punishment was so executed may be, what all researchers can agree on is a general lack of regulation and fairness in capital punishment before the modern era. With humankind’s progress towards civilization, both of these things have changed. Schabas believes this is because the advance towards civilization has changed the nature of human motivation - the author argues t hat the socialization and interdependence that characterize the modern era, also lead to a legal system where the promotion of ethics - and not harsh deterrence - becomes the core function of criminal law (â€Å"The Abolition of the Death Penalty†). Over the centuries, then, societies around the globe have moved towards a legal system which regulates the nature of capital punishment, and the reasons and processes for awarding it (Schabas, â€Å"The Death Penalty† 159). One of the first steps towards this was made in the 1966

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Chinese philosophy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Chinese philosophy - Essay Example The ultimate motive of Chuang Tzu was, probably, to appreciate the beauty of River Hao. Text 1. Chuang Tzu and Hui Tzu were strolling along the bridge of the Hao River when Chuang Tzu said, â€Å"See how the minnows come out and dart around where they please! That’s what fish really enjoy!† Hui Shi said, â€Å"You are not a fish---how do you know what fish enjoy!† Chuang Tzu said, â€Å"You’re not I, so how do you know that I do not know what the fish enjoy.† Hui Shi said, â€Å"I am not you, so I certainly don’t know what you know. On the other hand, you are certainly not a fish—so that still proves you don’t know what fish enjoys.† Chuang Tzu said, â€Å"Let go back to your original question, please. You ask me how I know what fish enjoys. So you already knew I knew it when you ask the question. I know it by standing upon the River Hao.† In just a few statements, these two characters have sparked off a delightful, thought-provoking, and philosophical discussion, indeed. The fundamentals of the discussion revolve around the individuality and uniqueness of each body in this universe. Philosophy has given way to the notion that nobody knows what the other body is in actuality. In the spectrum of philosophical thought, reality is, in fact, a fallacy and with regards to the philosophical sphere of thinking, it is a matter of fact that Hui Shi may never know what Chuang Tzu is. What may seem to the human eye could be the result of one’s own biased expectations of thought and perceptions. In short, if Hui Shi expects Chuang Tzu to be human, Chuang Tzu will seem human to Hui Shi. However, it is Chuang Tzu who knows if he, himself, is human or not. In the case that Chuang Tzu is human, then Hui Shi has objected correctly against the claim of knowing what fishes enjoy. Chuang Tzu can never perceive what it is like to b e a foreign body. Even so, Chuang Tzu should not even try to perceive because his current, fixed

Suffering of Woman Protagonist in Male Hegemony Society Within The Yellow Wallpaper Essay Example for Free

Suffering of Woman Protagonist in Male Hegemony Society Within The Yellow Wallpaper Essay Women role in a society has always been changing since prehistoric times so it could not be difined accuratly. However there always has been a stereotype male figure in the society which nearly has not altered since the very first. Besides the women role also differed between religions and civilisations. For instance in early Native American Tribes women were something deified , this however shifted and women no longer thought to be superior , and quite opposite they were considered to be inferior. By 19 century with the influence of the Civil War and all of the social protests demand to improve the woman rights caused many women to question the inferior role patriarchal society cast for them. Due to the fact that north won the war and so slavery was prohibited lead the women to claim their own rights in United States. During the end of 19 century many woman writers wrote various things to show their gender’s suffering living in a male dominant society. In l890 Florence Fenwick Miller , midwife turned journalist describes woman’s position succinctly. Under exclusively man-made laws women have been reduced to the most abject conditions at legal slavery in which it is possible for human beings to be held , under the arbitrary domination of another’s will and dependent for decent treatment exclusively on the goodness of heart of the individual master. ( from a speech to the National Liberal Club) â€Å" The Yellow Wallpaper† was also written during late 19 centuries by Charlotte Perkins Gilman to indicate the female suffrage under male hegemony America. The writer demostrates a common female figure who is remaining passive in all the decisions she should take for her own however instead her husband John decides for everything she should do even in her every day schedule, as the female protagonist states â€Å"I have a schedule prescription for each hour in the day ; he takes all care from me, and so I feel basely ungreatful not to value it more. † The narrator also stereotypes all o the male characters she addresses during the short story. She emphasises that they are all the same or worse than each other in treating women. She informs the reader that her husband who is a physician does not believe that she is sick instead he assures friends and relatives that she has nothing except temporary nervous depression. The narrator compares her husband’s opinion about her with her brother’s â€Å"my brother is also a physician, and also of high standing , and he says the same thing. † (13). Another male figure she compare with her husband is Weir Mitchell who is a physician too â€Å"I had a friend who was in his hands once, and she says he is just like John and my brother, only more so! (85). Due to all paralleling she made about opposite gender within the â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† we comprehend that the writer is feeling under oppression. Moreover the narrator writes on her secret dairy since she was prohibited to write or read anything. Actually the writer was prohibited to perform everything other than essential needs of human being. It was banned for her to write ,to imagine and to work but she does not share with them the same opinion she states â€Å"personally I believe that congenial work, with excitement and change would do me good. (13). She is unhappy with all the rights they insist her to do however she is sure that these things are not curing her. There are also repetition of some questions â€Å"but what is one to do? † (15), â€Å"and what s one to do? † (9), â€Å"what is one to do? † (10) which indicates that even though the writer does not agree with them in numerous points, she is not able to change neither her marriage nor her life since she knows that women are valued as long as they are supportive to their male companions. Another point is that John belittles and ridicules her fears , opinions and believes. Because when she told her opinion about the yellow wallpaper in which is in their room she says â€Å"he laughs at me so about this wallpaper! † (50). The writer thinks that the yellow wallpaper’s colour is â€Å"repellent† and â€Å"revolting†. Moreover we witness that the woman has worse ideas about this wallpaper â€Å" there are things in the wallpaper that nobody knows but me, or ever will. Behind that outside pattern the dim shapes get clearer every day. It is always the same shape, only very numerous. And like a woman stooping down and creeping about behind that pattern. I do not like it a bit. I wonder – I begin to think –I wish John would take me away from here! † (122). We comprehend that John did not care about her feeling concerning the wallpaper in their room therefore that caused her to sight nonfactual things and believe them the most strange fact is that John’s attitude towards her forced her not to tell all what she believes and thinks â€Å"I had no intension of telling him it was because of the wallpaper – he would make fun of me† (169). Besides we understand that John thinks she is still small because he calls her â€Å"little girl† perhaps that is the reason why he wants to control her and give all the decisions about her. Also it could be the reason why she does not tell him about her secret thoughts because he would think that she needs to be controlled. The short story has fascinatingly dramatic end which effects its reader and demonstrates that the writer wants to be freed from this male hegemony oppressing her in her every action . The narrator which was annoyed of the wallpaper in her room and believed that women were trapped beneath the wallpaper got slowly got insane due to that idea and peeled off all the paper intending to free the trapped women. She ends the story by these words â€Å" I have got out at last , in spite of you and Jane . And have pulled off most of the paper, so you can not put me back. † (265). We derive that the women she speaks about is her and all the women trapped in a male dominant society. So she belives she can free them from this pressure by peeling the wallpaper. Probably she sights the wallpaper as the society and her husband. Moreover we observe that she s tired of the role she was given by the society and wants to get rid of it. We witness a similar ending when we read Virginia Woolf’s To The Lighthouse , we face a perfect example for the gender roles : Mrs Ramsay. Mrs Ramsay is a wonderful actor in novel ,playing her role of â€Å"angel in the home† with a laudable diligence. â€Å"†¦.. she had the whole of the other sex under her protection; for reasons she could not explain, for their chivalry and valour, for the fact that they negotiated treaties ,ruled India, controlled finance. (11). Such a view is what we have seen in our houses since our childhood and what is going on in other houses. Being an angelic mother and wife who stays at home and does what her husband says is the only thing that is expected from the female figure nothing more than that is awaited. To get rid of it in order to get base in life as neither being supportive nor supported as needs a sharp cut from the past description of what and who is woman. So that is what Virginia Woolf does by killing Ramsay through the end of the novel. This example shows that many woman writers touched on the same matter in their writings In the given situation in â€Å" The Yellow Wallpaper† we have woman figure whom oppresses her feelings ,imaginations and thoughts because she knows that is the only way she can be accepted by her husband and the society she dwells in. However this female protagonist struggles to gain a base instead submitting society rules and the dominance of masculine hegemony. And finally when she thinks she got free from the place they trapped her , we witness that she got mad. So we can observe the sufferings of the writer due to the man hegemony she is oppressed.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Vladimir Putin & successor Essay Example for Free

Vladimir Putin successor Essay Vladimir Putin was the hand-picked successor of Boris Yeltsin and was elected as the president of the Russian Federation in 2000. After earning a law degree in 1975, Putin joined the KGB, the security force of the former Soviet Union. He spent years working primarily in East Germany, then left the service in 1991 and became active in the politics of St. Petersburg. He was brought to Moscow by Yeltsin in 1996 and served as an administrator in the Kremlin and an official for the security organizations which replaced the KGB. In 1999, Putin became Yeltsins fifth prime minister in 17 months, and then became acting president when Yeltsin left office. He was officially elected to the office in 2000 and then re-elected in a landslide vote in March of 2004 (Montinola 148). Putin moved quickly to reassert the central governments authority over the various republics, regions, and other administrative units and has sought to exert control over elements of the independent media. He also has worked to revamp, and reduce the size of, the military. He won enactment of liberal economic reforms and ratification of international arms agreements, while also renewing ties with former Soviet client states and maintaining Russias strong opposition to proposed U. S. ballistic missile defenses (Fish 119). Although Putin has been, in the main, popular with the Russian public, his reputation suffered when he was perceived to have acted belatedly after the Russian submarine Kursk sank in Aug. , 2000 (Baker 27). By the end of his second year in office, however, the Russian presidents position had visibly strengthened, as he became apparently successful in stabilizing the government and the economy, the latter achieved in part through banking, labor, and private-property reforms and in part through a fortuitous rise in oil prices (Russias principal export). Legal reforms gave greater protection to the accused and increased powers to judges, bringing Russian judicial practice more in line with that of the West. In 2001 and 2002, Putin criticized, but accepted, the U. S. withdrawal from the ABM treaty as it proceeded with its development of its missile defense system, while signing a treaty reducing the number of U. S. and Russian nuclear warheads and establishing closer relations with the United States and NATO. Many reforms that had been enacted faltered in their enforcement in the second half of Putins term, or were not built upon. Russias regions and provinces managed to resist central government control in many instances, and Chechnya remains an ongoing, festering problem. Putin was reelected in Mar. , 2004, in an election that European observers criticized as unfair (Baker 257). Putin subsequently obtained changes that allowed him to appoint regional and provincial governors, increasing the central governments control over the federations constituents. Given this background, the policies of Putin can now be assessed. This analysis will cover some of the most influential and questionable policies of Putin during his tenure as the president of Russia. The first issue is the way that Putin has dealt with welfare policies in Russia. According to various Russian and western media reports, Putin is extremely concerned about the ongoing demographic problems (death rate being higher than birth rate and immigration rate), cyclical poverty, and housing concerns within the Russian Federation. In 2005, four national projects were launched in the fields of healthcare, education, housing and agriculture (Hanson 660). In his May 2006 annual speech, Putin proposed increasing maternity benefits and prenatal care for women. While these developments in the Russian policy on healthcare have had a fair degree of success, it cannot be properly and completely assessed without first examining the economic policies of Putin since these have a direct effect on the ability of the Russian government to implement these welfare policies. The Russian economy has grown strongly under Putin, thanks mainly to the good luck of sustained high oil prices, but helped too by sound macroeconomic policies (Hanson 661). Foreign investors, forgetting that they were badly burnt by Russias default in 1998, have flocked back. But the imminent demise of Yukos and the evidence that Putin is more interested in reasserting state control over the economy than in pursuing economic liberalization are making many pause once again (Hanson 670). But the attack on Yukos, the best-run and most western-looking of Russian companies, was the worst cure of all: capricious, selective and motivated by politics not the rule of law. Fears that it might presage attacks on other companies seem confirmed by this weeks news of an abrupt tax claim on VimpelCom, a telecoms firm. Businessmen in Moscow say that, far from Putins new order helping to squeeze out corruption, it is now more pervasive than in the worst of the Yeltsin years. Corruption lies at the heart of many of Russias most intractable problems, from the poor state of the army, to the war in Chechnya, to its ineffective policing and counter-terrorism (Montinola 152). Putin has admitted that many Russians might fear the police more than they do criminals. But his efforts to tackle corruption have been half-hearted at best—and, because he has fostered more state control and little respect for the rule of law, he has created precisely the conditions in which corruption thrives best. Meanwhile, the pro-business reforms promised for his second term are largely in limbo (Montinola 153). Russias notorious â€Å"oligarchs† have also been tamed. Boris Berezovsky and Vladimir Gusinsky, two of the most unco-operative, are in exile. Mikhail Khodorkovsky, on trial for fraud and tax evasion, has been in prison since his arrest in October 2003. And Yukos, the oil company Mr Khodorkovsky once ran, looks set to be eviscerated when most of Yuganskneftegaz, its oil-production subsidiary, is sold on December 19th. What remains of Yukos may also be seized, to requite alleged tax debts of some $25 billion. The near-certain purchaser of Yugansk is Gazprom, the state-run gas monopoly. Swallowing Yugansk will turn Gazprom into an energy behemoth that serves Russias foreign-policy interests even more powerfully (Montinola 148). Mr Putin is emerging more and more as a tactician, not a strategist. Economic reform, for example, has stalled since high oil prices offered an easier path to growth. His commitment to democracy now looks to be a tactic too. He may not yet have decided what to do in 2008. Boris Nemtsov, co-founder of a committee set up to make sure he leaves on schedule, says that, if he does want to stick around, international obloquy would give him greater pause than domestic opinion. European and American leaders would react badly to a restructuring of the government, and with horror to a change in the constitution (Baker 375). Perhaps one of the most controversial policies of Putin is directly related to Putins rise to public office in August 1999 which also coincided with an aggressive resurgence of the near-dormant conflict in the North Caucasus, when Chechen nationalists regrouped and invaded neighboring Dagestan. Both in Russia and abroad, Putins public image was forged by his tough handling of this dire challenge (Fish 125). His war in Chechnya was hugely popular, but its brutality also raised real questions about Putins commitment to human rights. References: Baker, Peter and Glasser, Susan Kremlin Rising: Vladimir Putins Russia and the End of Revolution Scribner Book Company May 2005 464 pages Fish, Steven Democracy Derailed in Russia: The Failure of Open Politics, (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 119-127. Hanson, Philip and Teague, Elizabeth â€Å"Big Business and the State in Russia,† Europe-Asia Studies, 57, 5:657-680, July 2005 Montinola, Gabriella and Jackman, Robert â€Å"Sources of Corruption: A Cross-Country Study,† British Journal of Political Science Vol. 32, 2002, 147-170 Putin, Vladimir First Person, Public Affairs, 2000, 208 pp. (collection of interviews). Russian title: Ot Pervogo Litsa. Razgovory s Vladimirom Putinym (From the First Person. Conversations with Vladimir Putin), Moscow, Vagrius, 2000.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Vehicle Fleet Management Plan

Vehicle Fleet Management Plan 1.0 VEHICLE MANAGEMENT POLICY AND PROCEDURES 1.01 Policy: In order to reduce the cost and risk of operating and managing a motor vehicle fleet, Citibank Trinidad and Tobago Ltd will establish a comprehensive group of procedures governing the control, utilization, and maintenance of Business owned vehicles. 1.02 Scope: These policy and procedures specify the requirements for utilization, operation, and maintenance of all Citibank controlled motor vehicles. This includes vehicles owned or leased by the Business, rental vehicles, and personally owned vehicles used on Citibank business. 2.0 VEHICLE FLEET MANAGEMENT PLAN 2.01 Administrative Responsibility: In accordance with this policy, Citibank has delegated the administration of the motor vehicle fleet to the Building Superintendents. The Building Superintendent has the administrative responsibility of requesting the purchase, replacement, maintenance, control, and assignment of all Citibank vehicles. The Building Superintendents will act as the point of contact with the GSU Department and will be responsible for observing and enforcing the fleet management policies and procedures at Citibank. 2.02 Staff /Vendor Responsibility: All employees/couriers who utilize Citibank owned vehicles, vehicles rented/leased to Citibank or who use their personal vehicles on Official Citibank business and are reimbursed for mileage shall adhere to the Vehicle Fleet Management Policy and Procedures as written. 3.0 DEFINITIONS: For the purposes of this policy, the following definitions shall apply. 3.01 Employee: Anyone appointed to work for Citibank/Marketspace in a manner that causes their name to appear on the payroll as a full or part time employee; and they are routinely scheduled to work more than thirty (30) hours a week. 3.02 Course and Scope of Employment: An employee is within the course and scope of employment when he or she is engaged in activities that are related to the mission of Citibank and are in the furtherance of its affairs or business, whether on the Citibanks premises or elsewhere. 3.03 Activities: Citibank related activities are those activities that are consistent with Citibanks mission and that are approved by the appropriate administrative department. 3.04 Motor Vehicle: A motor vehicle is defined as a vehicle that is licensed and legal to operate on the roadways. This includes Citibank fleet vehicles and any vehicles rented or leased by the business for Citibank related activities. 3.05 Highway: The entire width between property lines of any road, street, way, thoroughfare, or bridge in this country not privately owned or controlled, when any part thereof is open to the public for vehicular traffic, and over which the State has legislative jurisdiction and police power. 3.06Vehicle Inspection Form: A form that is used by the Fleet Managers designee to evaluate and record the condition of each vehicle on a routine basis 3.07 Operate: To be in actual physical control of a motor vehicle upon any highway. 3.08 Minor motor vehicle accident: Repair cost- TTD$0.00 $6,000.00 3.09 Major motor vehicle accident: Repair cost TTD$6,000.01 and above. 3.10 The Vendor/Courier: Marketspace Limited Courier Services contracted by the bank 4.0 TRAVEL USING CITIBANK OWNED VEHICLES 4.01 Appropriate Use: Vehicles should be used only by persons who are acting within the course and scope of Citi related activities or employment. 4.02 Eligible Drivers: In addition to meeting all other criteria in this policy, only those persons whose names appear on Marketspaces designee sheet and are regularly scheduled to work more that Thirty (30) hours a week or any Citi Employee given such authorization should be asked or allowed to use Citibank owned motor vehicles. 4.03 Secondary Drivers: Trips of long duration may require a secondary driver to assist the designated driver. A secondary driver must have their travel appropriately authorized prior departing the premises. 4.04 Passengers: A. Family members: Unless a family member is also an employee or participation of such a person is approved as part of a sanctioned event of this institution; each Marketspace/Citibank Employee who operates a Citibank-owned vehicle should be made aware that there is no liability coverage for members of any employee drivers immediate family who are passengers in Citibank-owned vehicles. B. Hitchhikers: Hitchhikers are not allowed to ride in any fleet vehicle. 5.0 TRAVEL USING PERSONAL VEHICLES 5.01 Notice of Potential for Personal Liability: Citibank recognizes that employees occasionally use personal vehicles while engaged in Citibank-related activities. Because personal automobile insurance will be looked to first in the event of an accident, all persons who use their vehicles while conducting Citibank business should be made aware of the possibility of personal liability related to such use. The Bank does provide limited secondary liability coverage for damages arising from use of a personal vehicle; however, members of the drivers family and other employee are excluded from coverage under that policy. 5.02 Reimbursement for Costs of Using Personal Vehicles: Mileage costs related to any significant use of personal vehicles to conduct Citibank-related business may be reimbursed to employees upon approval of department head. 5.03 Use of Personal Vehicles Not Required: No individual shall be mandated to use his or her vehicle to perform Citibank-related activities. 6.0 TRAVEL USING RENTAL VEHICLES 6.01 Travel Authorization: Rentals are only for employees whose travel is â€Å"authorized† by Citi. Authorization requires written approval from the head of the traveling employees department and the CCO/SCOO. 6.03 Use of Travel Agent: Rentals under the Bank-negotiated contracts or using local funds should be arranged through an Approved Vendor 7.0 PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION 7.01 Driver Requirements: All Marketspace/Citibank employees who may be called upon to drive a Citibank vehicle shall have a Valid Drivers Permit as required by law. The records will be obtained and maintained by the GSU Department assisted by the Building Superintendents. An acceptable rating to for any person to operate a Citibank vehicle shall be no more then three (3) minor motor vehicle accidents (not at fault) or one minor at-fault motor vehicle accident per year. Any more than one (1) major at-fault motor vehicle accident every Two (2) years would result in the Driver being suspended if it is a Marketspace employee or all motor vehicle access privileges revoked if a Citi Employee. An employee with a rating of more than the specified amount must attend a defensive driver training class and would also stand the cost of any repairs to any further motor vehicle accidents. It would be the responsibility of the Marketspace/Citibank employee to schedule required remedial training on his or her own time and bear the cost of this training. ` Other violations Type A Violations Driving while intoxicated (alcohol or drugs). Homicide arising out of the use of a motor vehicle. Operating a motor vehicle during a period of suspension or revocation of an operators license. Using a motor vehicle for the commission of a felony. Aggravated assault with a motor vehicle. Operating a motor vehicle without the owners permission (stolen vehicle). Permitting an un-licensed person to drive. Reckless driving. Hit and run involving bodily injury and/or physical damage. Type B Violations All moving violations not listed as Type A violations. 7.02 MVR Review Schedule: A motor vehicle record (MVR) shall be obtained on all employees whose job duties would include driving a Citibank owned, rented, or personal vehicle while on Citibank business. The MVR shall be reviewed and updated regularly based on the following schedule: Prior to employment: The Human Resources Department will ensure that prospective employees requiring an MVR submit copies of drivers license and if applicable copies of all defensive driving records. All copies of the records would be sent to the GSU Department for maintenance. For all Marketspace employees, GSU would maintain all records and files with the assistance of the Building Superintendent. Annually: The driving records of all Marketspace/Citi employees who are required to drive will be reviewed annually by the GSU Department. The employees department head and the Building Superintendents will be notified of any change in the drivers status. Upon notification of an accident or citation: If a Citibank/Marketspace employee has been involved in a motor vehicle accident or receives a traffic citation while operating a Citibank Vehicle, it is the employees responsibility to notify the GSU Department and their supervisor/manager of the change in their driver status. Failure to make such notification in a timely manner could result in a revocation of driving privileges, and /or disciplinary action. Upon notification of suspension, revocation or expiration of the operators license: Driving privileges are automatically suspended when a Marketspace or Citibank employee valid drivers license has been suspended, revoked, or expired. It is mandatory that the employee inform their supervisor/ manager when such a suspension, revocation, or expiration occurs. Individuals who do not have a valid drivers license are forbidden from operating any Bank-owned or rented vehicles. They are also banned from driving personal vehicles on Citibank business while collecting for mileage. 7.03 MVR Administrative Responsibility: The Building Superintendents shall maintain a list of all regular drivers. Information gathered as part of this program shall be confidential. Assignment of additional driver training will be the responsibility of the GSU Head. A courier may be required to bear the expense and time of any remedial training assigned due to a poor rating. Driver training can include, but is not limited, to: Defensive driving classes One-day seminars on driving improvement Driver training videos on needed specific driving skills. 8.0 VEHICLE OPERATIONS 8.01 Vehicle Reservations: A vehicle may be requested by completing a Vehicle Request Form (including authorizing signature) or by having the authorizing agent E-Mail a request. A separate form is required for each vehicle or trip requested. The request for vehicle reservations should be made at least forty eight (48) hours in advance if possible. Vehicles are generally available on a first come, first serve basis but should a conflict arise the Administration will determine vehicle availability and make the assignment. 8.02 Vehicle Pick-up/Drop-off: A reserved vehicle may be picked up or dropped off by the authorized driver at the Banks basement car park under the supervision of security. 8.03 Citibank Fleet Management Obligations: Citibank will provide vehicles that are in safe and good driving condition. Building Superintendent will be responsible monitoring the care and maintenance of vehicles; keeping up with items such as inspections, manufacture recalls and general preventive maintenance of the vehicles. The Building Superintendent will provide the GSU Department with all required information on the maintenance and utilization of the fleet. It will also be the responsibility of the Building Superintendent to assure that the vehicles to be used by people having reservations are clean and have been serviced appropriately for their trip. The Building Superintendent in conjunction with the GSU Department will use information gathered from the fleet management program to determine appropriate repair and replacement schedules for the Banks vehicles. 8.04 Driver Obligations: The following conditions apply to all drivers who use Citibank vehicles. Drivers should read these obligations carefully before operating a Citibank vehicle. Caution: The driver of the vehicle has ultimate responsibility for seeking and possessing information about driving safety and applicable laws. Citibank will not be responsible for any traffic citations resulting from the actions of the driver. The driver must: Have a valid Trinidad Tobago drivers license, appropriate for the weight and class vehicle that they are operating. Have a current courier/vehicle operator file with the GSU Dept. Notify their supervisor and GSU Department of any change in his or her license status. This includes notification of moving violations and/or traffic accidents. Complete a Vehicle Use Report and maintain a detailed record of expenses such as fueling or emergency mechanical work. Wear seat belts when driving or occupying a Citibank vehicle. Assume responsibility for any and all fines or traffic violations associated with your use of a Citibank vehicle. Never drive while under the influence of drugs or alcohol. This includes â€Å"over the counter† or prescription medication that may effect the drivers ability. Never transport passengers such as hitchhikers, family members, or friends for unauthorized use. Turn the vehicle ignition off, remove the keys, and lock the vehicle when you leave it unattended. Never drive the vehicle at speeds that are inappropriate for the road conditions. Report all accidents to the Building Superintendent and to the police department in the jurisdiction where the accident occurred. Not allow smoking in the vehicle. Not eat, drink, or operate any equipment that may distract or interfere with the safe operation of the vehicle. Not use radar/laser detection devices or wear headphones/earphones while operating the vehicle. Exercise caution when using cellular phones. Refer to Section 8.05 below. Observe traffic laws at all times. Drive courteously and defensively. Return the vehicle free of litter, noting any problems with the vehicle on the Vehicle Use Report. 8.05 Cell Phone Use: As a general rule, the use of Business-owned and personal cellular phones while operating a moving vehicle has restrictions/guidelines for use due to the distraction and lack of concentration presented to safe driving performance. As a driver, your first responsibility is to pay attention to the road. Conversations should be kept to an absolute minimum. Do not read, look up an address, lookup phone numbers, or attempt to write or take notes while driving. Place your cellular phone in your vehicle where it is easily accessible without removing your eyes from the road. When possible, plan your calls before you begin your trip, or call when your vehicle is stopped at a stop sign or red light. Attempt to dial and place all calls when you are not moving or have a passenger use the phone. Learn and use the pre-programmed number dial features of your phone. Practice using this feature for commonly dialed numbers before driving so you are familiar with the procedures. If you absolutely need to dial while driving, assess the traffic and dial only a few numbers at a time. If your phone rings when you are driving especially during hazardous road and/or heavy traffic conditions let your cellular voice mail service take the call and listen to the message later when you are parked, or pull over before answering, if traffic conditions permit. Let the person you are speaking to know you are driving and that the call may need to be suspended at any time. Suspend conversations during hazardous driving conditions or situations. Do not engage in stressful or emotional conversations while driving. A stressful or emotional phone conversation while driving is distracting and potentially dangerous. If necessary, suspend the phone conversation. Use your cellular phone to call for help or to help others in emergencies. However, do not place yourself or others in danger while doing so. If you see an auto accident, crime in progress, or other serious emergency where lives are in danger, call the relevant emergency service/s and give the exact location and information to them, 8.06 Reporting of Accidents or Damage: The driver is responsible for the immediate reporting of any accidents or damage incurred while operating a Citibank vehicle. An incident should be first reported to the nearest police station having jurisdiction. Notify the GSU Department and the supervisor as soon as practicable after any accident or incident resulting in injury or damage to the vehicle. When you have an accident, you must: Get immediate medical attention if you or your passengers are injured. Keep calm and avoid arguments over blame. Make no statements concerning guilt or fault. Never agree to make payments for the accident. Notify the police; a police report may be necessary for some insurance claims. Discuss the accident only with police officers, the Banks insurance claims adjuster, or a GSU officer. Record as much information as you can on all other parties to the accident. This information may include names of individuals involved, drivers license number, addresses, vehicle make, model and year, witness names and telephone numbers. Dont forget to get the name of the city in which the accident occurred and the name of the investigating officer. Fill out a Vehicle Accident Report and forward it to the GSU Officer as soon as possible. Use the insurance carrier provided form in your vehicle to record information concerning the accident. This form has information about our carrier, tips on gathering information at the accident scene and a space for writing down the important information. 9.0 FLEET SIZE AND MAINTENANCE 9.01 Vehicle Disposal: Once the decision to dispose of the vehicle has been made, the vehicle should be sold as soon as practical. The longer it sits the more it will depreciate. 9.02 Vehicle Replacement Schedule: Consideration should be given to age of the vehicle, mileage, and the cost of maintenance. 9.03 Vehicle Acquisition: In order to make best use of the vehicles in the fleet and minimize overall fleet cost, the purchase of a new vehicle should be made only after careful consideration. Some of the factors involved in the decision to purchase should be as follows: Is this a replacement of an existing vehicle? If so, could repairs be made that would be more economical than a purchase? Could a utility vehicle be used in lieu of a motor vehicle? Is the purchase related to a documented need resulting from program growth? Is the vehicle essential to the mission of Citibank? Can the need be documented? 9.04 New Vehicle Delivery: All new vehicles will be inspected by the Fleet Manager or his designee upon delivery. Particular attention will be paid to any damage that might have occurred during shipment. All warranty papers and owner/operator documents will be listed and reviewed prior to accepting delivery. GSU will be notified and provided with all of the required information concerning the addition, as soon as possible, after the Bank accepts a new vehicle into the fleet. The new vehicle will be added to the preventive maintenance schedule for the care of the vehicle. 9.05 Titles and Registration: All original vehicle titles and registration receipts will be acquired and maintained by the GSU Designee. 9.06 Warrantees, Recalls and Inspections: The Fleet Manager or his designee shall be responsible for the review and appropriate response to all factory recall issues. All warranty information and inspection dates will be entered in the Maintenance Schedule reminders will be created to remind the staff of upcoming inspections or service requirements. Also inspections would be done by the Building Superintendents using the Weekly Vehicle Checklist and daily by Marketspace couriers using the daily checklist. 9.07 Preventive Maintenance: Each vehicle in the fleet shall have a Preventive Maintenance (PM) plan for regularly scheduled maintenance. This plan shall be based on manufacturer recommendations for the vehicle model, type of use the vehicle typically encounters and Citibanks previous experience in maintaining similar vehicles. Items such as tires, brakes, lubrication / fluids and spark plugs should be placed on a regular maintenance interval. The Building Superintendent will review the PM program annually to determine if the task and frequencies are adequate and if the results indicate the PM program is helpful in maintaining the vehicles and reducing operating cost. 9.08 Fuel Selection: All of the vehicles in the Citibank fleet are designed to operate on â€Å"premium unleaded gasoline†. Unless labeled otherwise, only premium unleaded gasoline should be used when fueling. 9.09 Fuel and Service Credit Cards: Citibank provides commercial fleet fueling at Richmond Street Center, to authorized drivers on an as need basis. It is not permissible for Citibank fueling to be used for any service other than those associated with the operation of Citi owned vehicles on Citibank business.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Theories of Visual and Auditory Attention Essay example -- Neurology

It is essential that humans focus on specific objects as they would not be able to perform one action at a time, and humans see their world in objects. Another purpose of attention is so that actions can be directed and controlled (Allport, 1987 cited in Naish 2010). It is important to research this in order to optimise health and safety and performance in occupational fields and make further discoveries in clinical neuropsychology. Some debates rage around how we attend to objects through our auditory and visual processes. Early selection theorists argue that all extraneous information is filtered out at an early stage and is ignored completely. The brain has limited capacity to deal with all the stimuli surrounding the object. From this Broadbent (1958 cited in Naish 2010) devised his influential Filter Theory, an early selection theory in auditory research. Treisman (1980 cited in Naish 2010) was an attenuation theorist and her Feature Integration Theory was also extremely i nfluential, arguing some extraneous material is attended to before filtering. This essay will explore both theories and their contribution to our understanding of perception. It will make comparisons between the theories and the two senses. It will conclude that the research has made major contributions, but none has provided sufficient evidence to fully address the issues. Whether superfluous information is attended to or not, might depend on volume. Whilst some auditory researchers were interested in the Cocktail Party effect (how we focus on one conversation over others at a noisy party), Broadbent’s main interest was research for the UK Military. A notable project for him was considering how fighter pilots could pick out relevant radio mess... ...tudies in neuroscience could make a contribution to the debate by revealing the serial and/or parallel processing of the brain in detecting brain pathways and oscillations (Schyns 2011). More natural studies could be considered using brain imaging during normal day to day lives to increase ecological validity, across modalities. Works Cited Driver, J. (2001) ‘A selective review of selective attention research from the past century’ British Journal of Psychology 92, pp53-78 Naish, P. (2010) ‘Attention’. In Kaye (Ed) Cognitive Psychology (2nd edition): The Open University: Padstow. Pp29-59 Schyns PG, Thut G, Gross J (2011) ‘Cracking the Code of Oscillatory Activity’. PLoS Biol 9(5): e1001064. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001064 Shinn-Cunningham, B. G. (2008) ‘Object-based auditory and visual attention, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol.12, no.5, pp.182–6.

What Is the Purpose of Education? Essay -- Environmental Education, Ph

Getting educated is very important for every person. It goes without saying that each of us has to have a proper education. We learn how to read, count and write. These are the basic abilities we acquire and use during our life. Is there any other purpose of education or it is aimed only at giving us a possibility to communicate our ideas and satisfy basic needs? During centuries, there were different interpretations of the purpose of education. Many scientists, pedagogues and philosophers tried to answer the question: what is the purpose of education? Taking into consideration the needs and tendencies of a modern society, we can assume that the purpose of education is to prepare students to be self-sufficient citizens capable of solving real world problems. We all live and work to support our society which, in its turn, provides as with security and other benefits. To support this â€Å"balance†, we should build education based on standards of decency and human survival by the need of the social community. In other words, one should be educated in order to serve the society. There ar...

Friday, July 19, 2019

Comparing Sophocles Antigone and Jean Anouilhs Antigone Essay

Both Sophocles and Jean Anouilh use the simple story-line of a girl defying her uncle and king in the face of death to reflect upon the events and attitudes of their days. Sophocles' Antigone models the classical pattern of tragedy by incorporating key elements such as a tragic hero with a fatal flaw and the Man-God-Society triangle. Creon is the tragic hero who disturbs the natural harmony of Thebes by denying Polyneices a funeral. Antigone is the catalyst who forces him to reckon with the consequences of his pride and arrogance. In the twentieth century, Jean Anouilh takes Sophocles' drama, strips it down to its core, and weaves an entirely different version of the story. Anouilh redefines "tragedy" by removing the conventional tragic hero, the Man-God-Society triangle and the black-and-white distinctions within the story. He creates a heroine with human faults and emotions, whom society can both embrace and emulate, in order to criticize the Vichy collaboration with Nazi Germany d uring WWII. Sophocles, following the Greek standard of tragedy, casts Creon as the tragic hero plagued by his own pride, inflexibility and power. Creon believes his authority to be twofold, both as the king and as the head of his family. He claims that the throne is the source of all power, saying ?whoever is chosen to govern should be obeyed ? must be obeyed, in all things, great and small, just and unjust? (Sophocles 217), and he demands the utmost allegiance from his son, bidding him to ?subordinate everything else?to [his] father?s will? (Sophocles 216). Creon is filled with hubris, and he rejects any solution that might compromise his image. For instance, when the guards escort Antigone to the palace, he demands of the Choragos, ?Who is the man... ... as a framework to convey his points. Furthermore, Anouilh changes an extremely well known play. When this happens, humanity tends to see only the differences between the works. And the differences (such as the changes in Antigone?s and Creon?s characters, the gray area between right and wrong, and politics and duty as motivating forces) convey his real political message: criticism of the Vichy regime. Works Cited Anouilh, Jean.?Antigone.? Trans. Lewis Galantià ¨re. Jean Anouilh: Five Plays. New York: Hill and Wang, 1986. 1-53. CNN World News. "French Catholics Apologize for World War II Silence on Jews." Web. 21 May 2015 Jean Anouilh Quotations. Web. 21 May 2015 Sophocles. Antigone Dover Thrift Editions New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1993

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Red Bull Case Study

Q1. The pure and strong cola drink comes with all power packs. By looking at Red bull cola drink and its profile, I would prefer to target two market segments specifically; behavourial and psychographic. I will pre-dominantly be focusing at behavourial segmentation. As it going to speak much about product’s quality. BEHAVOURIAL SEGMENTATION: Behavourial segmentation is the major segmentation which I would like to focus in order to be succeeded in capturing market. The very vital point through I feel that market of Red Bull cola can flourish is the quality and awareness to people of its product. QUALITY: Red bull cola that holds natural and pure ingredients plus there are no sweeteners, preservatives and artificial colour in the drink. Just a simple dedicated pure drink which enhance the quality of brand. Product quality must be differentiation point from competitors. ?AWARENESS: This is perhaps the best option where Red Bull cola can flourish their self. One way or another; th is is the most important part of segmentation. This is where they have to get their strategy right, Red bull cola making awareness to particularly people of UK, who are very conscious about their health and diet. The message which can be send by Red Bull cola about their drink is that; it is fully designed to people’s preference diet. As it is the only drink which contains the original kola nut and coca leaf with more caffeine that helps people to stay active in their day to day life. There is no artificial colour, preservatives and sweeterners. Therefore, it is build to serve your health most than other cola drinks. It’s ‘100% natural and strong’. PSYCHOGRAPHIC: Marketers are increasingly segmenting their market on consumer’s lifestyle. Red Bull cola must also target psychographic segments as it appeals to be iconic brand. They have more focus on life style and social class of people. They are trying to be trendy. ?SOCIAL CLASS: I would further like to divide social class into disco club, gig, sporting venues and musical concerts. Red bull segmenting social class may also prove to be a fruitful venture. This segment target those people who loves to go gigs, concert, sporting venues and disco clubs. Red bull cola will be main organizers of above areas and that create an icon in consumers mind about Red Bull cola essentials. ?LIFE STYLE: The reason I have chosen lifestyle segmentation is because the people of UK more renown as the nation who loves to be healthy and fit. Perhaps we can say them mainstreams, these people need security. They will buy well known, safe brands and avoid risk. Therefore Red Bull cola is just tailor made for those who loves to go secure. Red Bull cola is 100% pure and strong and dismiss the philosophy of artificial flavour. You can take it with you on exercise, you can use it as appealing product. Red Bull brand name says it all. Q2. Red bull cola wants to sparkle in a way with their product ingredients information. Therefore, their message is clear; they want to captualize the market on basis of pureness and naturalism of their product. As they have used slogan â€Å"strong and natural† prominently. According to them â€Å"we use high quality, authentic ingredients that create a greater tasting out of other cola†. However, Red bull campaign for their energy drink went successful when represent their brand by cartonize advertisement and appealing slogan â€Å"Red bull gives you wings†. Red Bull Cola marketing campaign much focusing strategically on psychographic segmentation particularly than any other segment. 00% natural ingredients may get customer toward them but high caffeine; once again prove to be a barrier in their targeting customer. Before I get to strategic segments let me post the article which Red Bull cola has disclosed. â€Å"LONDON: Red bull unveils ? 2 million campaigns for simply cola – Red Bull is rolling out a ? 2m marketing drive to support its e ntry into the ultra-competitive cola market, which will push the naturalness of the product† – DATED: June 08. STRATEGIC SEGMENTS: Market and service segments which require changes in marketing mix can be distinguished from strategic segments. Strategic segments are those segments which are aligned by company for long period of return. In other words they look out for longer vision of company which compromises strategic planning. They can by outlined by 4 P’s, let me explain the Red Bull Cola’s strategy on 4P’s which I believe they belong to. 4 P’s; product, price, promotion and place. ?PRODUCT: This is the very important point and red bull cola trying a lot to stick with it. Product’s information, as they defines it’s a 100% natural product, contains no artificial colour, sweeteners and preservatives. Truly a pure blend of 100% natural sources. Perhaps, they want to create product differentiation from competitors by adding natural ingredients, this is where they strengthening their product knowledge. This is where their main target is; to catch the market on the basis of product quality. Thus, for that they have to put the message right to the people. However, product is sold in 25cl and 35. 5cl cans, and it also comes in multipack of containing 4 bottles in it. ?PRICE: Price which are red bull cola charging is varying in different stores, Tesco selling it at ? 1. 0, Waitrose selling at ? 1. 20 and Budgens at ? 1. 09. By looking out the prices they are charging we can say that they are charging premium price for their product where as their giant competitors (PEPSI and COCA-COLA) sell their cola drink mostly on 60pence. Therefore, they are charging almost double of their competitors drink. The value added for their premium price is that red bull cola blended from 100% natural sour ces â€Å"Strong and Natural. † ?PROMOTION: Red bull cola, particularly promoting their drink by slogan â€Å"Natural drink†; through which customers normally are attracted. They have achieved a great amount of success by setting energy drink slogan â€Å"Red bull gives you wings†. However, as far as their promotion activities are concern, they are putting banners and advertisement in almost every store, and also offering free fridge to stores for placing their cola drink in unique and catchy way for customer. ?PLACE: The product is also in clubs, bars, restaurants and stores. Whereas Coca-Cola and Pepsi cola drink are normally not available in most of clubs and bars; where they have targeted places like clubs and bars. As per red bull cola’s initial strategy was capture the people who attends musical and sporting events, thus in cola drink they are also targeting the same genre. CONCLUDING 4P’s STRATEGY OF RED BULL COLA: The main thing which I have observed that Red Bull Cola targeting is specifically product and promotion. Even though they are not emphasizing enough on price and place. Product information which underlay product topic plays evenly crucial and important role to push Red Bull Cola one step ahead of competitors. However for that they have to get promotion strategy right. Q3. How is Red Bull differentiated from its competitors? Red Bull Cola is differentiates itself in four main ways from its competitors (Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola). Those four ways are ingredients, taste, appearance and price. INGREDIENTS: The Red Bull Cola drink is only cola drink which contains original coca leaf and kola nut. Other ingredients which they have used are; †¢Galangal †¢Lemon/Lime †¢Vanilla †¢Cinnamon †¢Cardamom †¢Orange †¢Corn mint ea †¢Ginger †¢Mace †¢Coca †¢Mustard seeds. †¢Clove †¢Liquorice †¢Pine Whereas, Pepsi and Coca-Cola use ingredients like caffeine, caramel flavour, natural flavour, phosphoric acid, carbonated water and high fructose corn syrup (sugar). TASTE: Apparently the taste of Red Bull Cola is much different than the taste of its competitors, and that is quite understandable as well, as Red Bull Cola contains original sources of Cola drink; like original coca leaf and kola nut. In my survey; which is enclosed at the end of question 5, lot of people are quite surprised to taste original cola drink taste (Red Bull cola) as they were very much addicted of Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola taste. APPEARENCE: The can of Red Bull cola is very much different than the can of Coca-Cola and Pepsi cola. Pepsi and Coca-Cola has almost same type of can. However, Red bull can is much taller and thinner in size as compared to Pepsi and Coca-Cola. PRICE: Price which is charged by Red Bull Cola drink is almost double of price which is charged by their competitors; however they are also giving value added as their drink is extracted from 100% natural sources. Q.. 4 Target market is basically a breaking of market in segments and then focusing on particular key segments. It helps business to be cost effective when 4Ps are applied within the selected or desired market segments. Red Bull Cola mainly targeting the psychographic segmentation, and at some extent Red Bull nergy drink is also targeting psychographic segmentation. Now let me explain some of the advertisement of Red Bull energy drink that has made on athletes. On their website I have seen video and testimonials of people which were something like this. A girl 24 year old doing climbing rock because she drinks red bull energy drink; she got the energy which she ever wanted. A 23 yea r old guy who's a motor cycle champion in 2008 uses same drink because he wants energy to perform exceptionally well, same with the person who is 34 year old and doing water sports. So the main theme is that if u wants to feel energy use red bull energy drinks. Whereas, Red Bull cola for those who wants to drink fresh and natural drink because Red Bull cola is made of natural ingredients, no sweeteners, no artificial flavour and no artificial colour – 100% natural. However, Red Bull GmbH targets the social and sporting events specifically to leave a note on people’s mind, for example that they proudly presents x games; in one way or another they are playing a mind game here, they are encoding a indirect message that passionate and extra ordinary athletes having a drink like Red Bull; so if you have similar passion or desire then you also try Red Bull. COMPARING TARGET MARKET: To some extent Red Bull cola and energy drink; both are falling into a same target market; as ?Both are being sold in same stores normally. ?They both are trying to capture market on basis of psychographic segmentation, as red bull cola is targeting health conscious people and red bull energy drink targeting lifestyle of people who wants to feel pure freedom, who wants to try something new, energetic and innovative generation. However both underlay in psychographic segmentation. Both drinks are meant to boost up energy level. One is â€Å"Strong and Natural† so other is mainly energy drink. ?Both products are proud organizers of musical, games and social events. POSITIONING: Positing is simply that how customer recall your product. By looking Red Bull Cola slogan â€Å"Natural and Strong† one can say; whenever customer think about original cola drink; first thing which they will get in their mind is Red Bull Cola drink as it is 100% natural. Whereas, Red Bull energy drink has now a firm grasp in world as one of leading energy drink, therefore whenever some one think about energy then he must think about Red Bull energy drink, further more their slogan says it all which is proving to be a very successful slogan for capturing market â€Å"Red Bull Gives You Wings. † Q5. Through my research and findings, I came to this point that red bull cola can not survive for long in market. There is not reason but reasons that can leave red bull’s step of introducing cola in vain. Many have come and many have failed in sector of cola. After my qualitative research I would like to mention the things which are potential threats to red bull cola’s fancy entry, competitors, alternatives of product, price, taste and expectations. First thing which is consistently giving red signal to red bull cola entry is their giant competitors; Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola. The reason I all them giant competitors is because they are the oldest companies in cola sector and has world wide distribution mechanism. Through their product life they have targeted the every market segmentation; plus they hold customer loyalty status that has positive response to their cola drinks. Second thing which is bothering to Red Bull Cola at the moment is alternatives to a product. Basically we can say it change of people preference culture. As per healthy requirement; people are now moving to a product which offers more nutrition and energy; just like natural fruit drink and energy drinks. Thus change in preference culture has not only affected the Red Bull cola but also to giant companies (Pepsi and Coca Cola); as their profits of last two year has slimed. But at this point, some may say this is the right time to capture market but I personally dismiss this idea. Thirdly, their pricing strategy didn’t work out properly. In other words, barrier from Red Bull cola to their customer is high ‘price’. Even if above two threats (competitors and alternatives to product) satisfy the product needs – still price problem will stand firm. Therefore, product’s price is not at good value. Fourth thing which I want to languish here is the taste of Red Bull Cola differs a lot from the taste of others cola drinks. People are so used to taste of Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola that even if they taste pure cola like Red Bull Cola they dismiss its taste preference. Now last and final threat through which I think they can’t be succeeded into the UK market is that they haven’t lived up to the people’s expectation. People were expecting something innovative and energetic from Red Bull Company, but unfortunately it hasn’t come out to be a product which people were expecting. However, bottom line is that Red Bull Cola has come up with flop strategy that seriously need to be reviewed because the threats that are standing as barrier for Red Bull Cola for flourishing in markets are very competitive and strong.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Sexual Offences Act 2003

One of the driving forces behind the creative bearivity of the informal Offences Act 2003 was the low judgment of credendum rate on rapers. In 1999 9,008 loot cases were reported and only 1 in 13 resulted in a conviction . Within this essay I get out discuss whether or non the changes introduced by the inner Offences Act 2003 minimal brain damage enceinteer clarity to the vault of heaven of despoil. In pitch to fully lowstand this question angiotensin converting enzyme must jump define lash out. The specimen interpretation of bodge is wicked trip outual confabulation with a wo slice who at the cartridge clip of intercourse does non concur . I say standard because with severally(prenominal) intimate Act the rendering of bodge has changed in rough way. When infr fulfill was low gear introduced as a statutory criminal offence in the Offences Against the some integrity Act 1861 it patently stated that it is a felony to app entirely a charr . The k todayledgeable Offences Act 2003 at peerless beat defines rape as the well-read sixth sense of the vagina, anus, or let the cat out of the bag of an opposite soulfulness who does non accede . Each k like a shotledgeable Offences Act pronounces to further clear the firmament of rape. The main change in the internal Offences Act 2003 has to deal with the definition and the area of acquiesce.The informal Offences Act of 1956 elaborates to a great extent on the area of rape it goes more in depth where rape is concerned than the Offences Against the Person Act 1861. The Sexual Offences Act 1956 states botch up of a man or woman (1)It is an offence for a man to rape a woman or other man. (2)A man sites rape if (a)he has informal intercourse with a soul (whether vaginal or anal) who at the sequence of the intercourse does non turn over to it and (b)at the age he knows that the soul does non accede to the intercourse or is heady as to whether that mo rtal concurs to it. 3)A man as well as commits rape if he induces a married woman to have inner intercourse with him by impersonating her husband. (4)Sub constituent (2) applies for the purpose of either en roleplayment. Like Offences Against the Person Act 1861, this comprise also failed to illuminate or to make pass further care on the offspring of accept. Thus, it was allay up to the judiciary to regulate the constituent elements and build up the f proceedors that skill vitiate an apparent prosecute over. In 1975 the case of DPP v Morgan prompted Parliament to fix this work on in order to attempt to clarify the area of live with.The amendment to this act is tack together in the Sexual Offences Act 1976. This act states (1)For the purposes of fractionalisation 1 of the M1Sexual Offences Act 1956 (which relates to rape) a man commits rape if (a)he has unlawful sexual intercourse with a woman who at the clipping of the intercourse does not consent to it and ( b)at that prison term he knows that she does not consent to the intercourse or he is reckless as to whether she consents to it and university extensions to rape in other enactments (including the following provisions of this Act) shall be construed accordingly. 2)It is herewith declared that if at a visitation for a rape offence the panel has to consider whether a man sweard that a woman was consenting to sexual intercourse, the front line or absence of well-founded suit for such a mental picture is a matter to which the jury is to have take care, in conjunction with all other germane(predicate) matters, in considering whether he so sweard. In the case of DPP v Morgan the husband invited 3 friends over to have intercourse with his wife. He told them that she might be acting resembling she was resisting but she was actually just portion playing.Though the wife struggled against them they still had sex with her because they were under the belief that she had consented . They were time-tested with rape. The judges remark to the jury plainly was if you believe that the wife did not consent so the suspects belief that she did indeed consent is not a excuse. They were all convicted of rape. ascribable to the confusion ca employ by this case comp whiznt 1(2) (as shown above) of the Sexual Offences Act 1976 was created. This gives a definition of mens rea in regards to consent .Although this act tried to further clarify consent and the sum of rape thither were still some tweaking that had to be done to it. For instance it defines rape but it doesnt establish the request to show that there was force, venerate, or thespian affecting the womans consent. The dialog box was just instructed to give consent its unexceptional meaning. That be stated this act also failed to proffer a sub judice definition of consent. All of these changes were made in the Sexual Offences Act 2003. The Sexual Offences Act 2003 states Rape (1) A person (A) commits an offence if a) he intentionally penetrates the vagina, anus or mouth of another person (B) with his phallus, (b) B does not consent to the perceptiveness, and (c) A does not clean believe that B consents. (2) Whether a belief is conjectural is to be determined having regard to all the heap, including any steps A has taken to ascertain whether B consents. (3) Sections 75 and 76 apply to an offence under this component part. (4) A person wrong of an offence under this branch is liable, on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for life. Although these changes were made does it actually add clarity to the area of rape?The first change that must be mentioned is the cellular inclusion of oral as a superman where cleverness potful occur. This was included because it was unconquerable that oral sex was just as abhorrent demeaning and traumatizing a assault and equally, if not more psychologically deadly than vaginal and anal rape . Secondly, partition 1(1) of this a ct makes rape gender specific. Since it states that penetration must be done with a penis then only males whoremaster commit rape. Thus, women fuckingnot legally be aerated with rape but if they act as an accomplice of a male raper then they outhouse be superaerated with do a person to assume in sexual activity .Although this section shows that a woman bottomlandnot be a rapist section 79(3) which state, references to a fortune of the body include references to a subroutine surgically constructed (in particular, through gender reassignment surgery), is a deviation of this rule this shows that if it is a transsexual, who pull penile surgery then she net be charged with rape, for rape is the penetration of the penis, whether it is a surgically constructed penis or a natural one. It does not matter the gender of who is raped or that of the rapist .Those with surgically constructed vaginas can also be raped as per R v Matthews . Thirdly, the actus reus for rape is no longer unlawful sexual intercourse. In the previous Sexual Acts 1956 and 1976 unlawful intercourse was the actus reus. Unlawful meant sexual intercourse outside of marriage. This was discovered to be a common law action as per R v R , and was abolished. Now a husband can rape his wife. The actus reus for rape according to the Sexual Offences Act 2003 is penetration . In ossification with this act in order for it to be rape several elements must be meet.Firstly, it has to be proven that the vagina, anus or mouth was intentionally penetrated by the defendant. The mens rea for rape is the intentional penetration. Once penetrated it is thought that intent is there unless the penetration is minimal. In that case it can be argued that the defendant only meant to incumbrance on the outside . Intoxication cannot be utilize as a defense as per R v timberland , collectable to the fact that rape is still a crime of basic intent. beforehand this act the actus reus for rape was unlawful intercou rse (outside marriage)it is now penetration.Section 79(2) defines penetration as a continuing act from accounting admission to withdrawal , as per Cooper v Schaub . For it to be penetration full entry is not necessary. Thus, the vagina includes the vulva this is explained in section 79(9), which just now states that Vagina includes vulva As per R v Tarmohammed the penis should be removed if at any draw consent is withdrawn. This brings me to my next point that of consent. Secondly, it has to be determined whether or not the dupe gave consent. Section 74 defines consent as a person freely checking by choice and who has the freedom and electrical condenser to make that choice . The phrase susceptibility to make a choice is a tricky phrase especially if one is dealing with a person with a psychogenic disorder. To help clarify this in the Offences related to persons with a mental disorder section 30(2) is used. This states B is unable to abjure if He lacks the capacity to ch oose whether to agree to the touching (whether because he lacks sufficient sympathy of the reputation or possible consequences of what is being done, or for any other reason), or he is unable to impart such a choice to A. Therefore if one does not understand the complete nature of the act then they cannot consent as per R v Williams . More clearing on whether or not a woman has consented is presumption by sections 75 and 76 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003. These sections each contain a presumption somewhat consent. Section 75 contain important presumption which may be challenged by the defendant, whereas, section 76 cannot be challenged as it is conclusive presumptions . The evidential burden is not a burden of proof it obviously gist that the defendant needs to provide some evidence that supports his case.Section 75 states (1) If in proceedings for an offence to which this section applies it is proven (a) that the defendant did the applicable act, (b) that any of the circ umstances specified in section (2) existed, and (c) that the defendant knew that those circumstances existed, If (a), (b), and (c) are proved by the prosecution then it can be assumed that the victim did not consent to the act nor did the wrongdoer fair believe that he had consent. If the judge does not think that the evidence is enough to attire an issue then the jury is instructed to quality at section 75(2) . This states The circumstances are that a) any person was, at the time of the applicable act or adjacently before it began, utilise fierceness against the plaintiff or causing the plaintiff to idolize that immediate violence would be used against him (b) any person was, at the time of the relevant act or immediately before it began, causing the complainant to fear that violence was being used, or that immediate violence would be used, against another person (c) the complainant was, and the defendant was not, unlawfully detained at the time of the relevant act (d ) the complainant was asleep or otherwise unconscious at the time of the relevant act (e) because of the complainants physical disability, the complainant would not have been able at the time of the relevant act to communicate to the defendant whether the complainant consented (f) any person had administered to or caused to be taken by the complainant, without the complainants consent, a join which, having regard to when it was administered or taken, was capable of causing or enabling the complainant to be stupefied or overpowered at the time of the relevant act. (3) In subsection (2)(a) and (b), the reference to the time immediately before the relevant act began is, in the case of an act which is one of a continuous serial of sexual activities, a reference to the time immediately before the first sexual activity began. When researching at sections 75(2)(a) and (b) violence is not given a legal definition here but uses its formula definition. Violence is any action using physica l force intended to hurt, damage, or kill . The one who does the act does not have to be the one that used violence in coercing the victim. In regards to section 75(2)(d) if one is asleep they then cannot give consent to the act as per R v Larter and Castleton . When dealing with section 75(2)(e) if one cannot communicate it may be due to a physical or mental disability. In regards to section 75(2)(f) if the wrongdoer knew that the bone marrow used would render the victim overpowered then he can be charged with rape. The conclusive presumptions found in section 76 are (1) If in proceedings for an offence to which this section applies it is proved that the defendant did the relevant act and that any of the circumstances specified in subsection (2) existed, it is to be conclusively presumed (a) that the complainant did not consent to the relevant act, and (b) that the defendant did not believe that the complainant consented to the relevant act. (2) The circumstances are that (a) th e defendant intentionally deceived the complainant as to the nature or purpose of the relevant act (b) the defendant intentionally bring forth the complainant to consent to the relevant act by impersonating a person cognize personally to the complainant. This simply means that if the offender intentionally deceives the victim in regards to what the act is which is taken place or to who he is then the consent is not valid. Thirdly, it has to be proven that the offender did not reasonably believe that the victim consented. Consent of undecomposed but mistaken belief is not acquirable where due to self-induced intoxication, there was rashness as to consent, or where D failed to take all reasonable steps that might be expected in the circumstances. In the case of DPP v Morgan it was decided that a person would not be guilty of rape if they had an honest belief that the victim did indeed consent.With the Sexual Offences Act section 1(2) it is no longer as ingenuous as that. Section 1(2) states Whether a belief is reasonable is to be determined having regard to all the circumstances, including any steps A has taken to ascertain whether B consents. The offender may in fact have made an honest mistake in regards of consent but it must be decided if the mistake was a reasonable one. This is left up to the jury to determine using a subjective approach. This means that the jury must look at all the facts including the offender characteristics, thus, giving a subjective view. In conclusion, it is my belief that the Sexual Offences Act 2003 does add a greater clarity to the area of rape.When one look at the previous Sexual Acts and equation them with the current act it is easy to adjoin the changes that has been made Not only can a biological male commit the act of rape but now a transgender individual can as well. Due to this act rape now entails oral sex and consent is given a legal definition. Section 75 and 76 of the act helps to further clarify the area of co nsent. Thanks to the changes made in this act the elements for rape are now more defined. ? BIBLIOGRAPHY Card, Richard (2008) Card, Cross, and Jones Criminal Law. untested York, Oxford University weightlift Cooper v Schaub 1994 Crim LR 531 DPP v Morgan 1976 A. C. 182 Martin ,A, Elizabeth. ed)(2006) Oxford vocabulary of Law. New York, Oxford University Press Office of cosmos Sector Information. The UK Statute law Database. 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