Sunday, December 8, 2019
Discussion on Cancer in Indigenous Australians- myassignmenthelp
Question: Discuss about theDiscussion on Cancer in Indigenous Australians. Answer: Introduction According to experts, the age group in which the highest number of cancer cases have been identified are higher among the indigenous Australians as compared to the non-indigenous ones. The incidence rate is considered to be high since the risk factors like amount of alcohol, smoking and other infections are higher in these regions (AIHW, Cancer Australia). Further, cancer screening among these regions are much lower as compared to other regions where non-indigenous citizens reside. Along with this, it can be noted that the number of mortality rates are much higher since the health care services in these areas regions are extremely low as compared to other developed cities. Apart from this, it was also accounted that the national data available to note the number of cancer cases in indigenous regions was not available. A significant insufficiency of data and its analysis team was also recorded. However, in accordance with the data collected during the years 2008 to 2012, around 5,946 new cases of cancer were recorded in Indigenous Australians, of which 2,899 were males and 3,047 were females. These regions include Northern Territory, Victoria, Queensland, South Wales and the Western part of Australia. The frequency of the incidence rate was 484 cases for 100,000 indigenous Australians (Cancer Australia, 2017). The cancer types that are identified to be the most frequent are Lung cancer, Uterine cancer and Liver cancer. The below illustration gives a brief overview of the cancer cases in the five regions as specified in the above paragraphs. Source: Cancer Australia, 2017 Media Item 1: https://cancerforum.org.au/forum/2013/march/aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-australians-and-cancer/ Title: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and Cancer Publication: Cancer Forum Authors: Condon et. al., 2013 Summary: This Media item sheds light on the status of Indigenous individuals when it comes to the number of cancer cases and amount of deaths that are caused by the inadequate health services. It also focuses on the need for improved health care services along with direct efforts. The document also proposes the cause of cancer among indigenous individuals today and stresses on the fact that the number of survivors among non-indigenous groups are much higher as compared to the indigenous groups. Furthermore, it can be noted that the document provides information how the palliative care services that are offered to indigenous groups are very low. However, it highlights the fact that the Australian government is now taking a high number of steps to encounter indigenous cancer cases that are on a rise in the country today. Lastly, the media link has been able to identify a serious gap in the whole diagnosis, provision of timely treatment and the survival models/programs that have been formed and launched by the government. Had the administration taken enough measures from the beginning, the authors state that the situation could have been much better as compared to today. Link to Unit Objectives: The link assists largely in understanding the health perspectives, issues and resolutions that are being witnessed among the Indigenous groups of the country. The research assists in getting a clearer understanding of Module 1 Topic 1 that lays focus on the ill health of indigenous individuals in certain parts of the country. The topic explains the influence of the decision-making powers and the government in general in the ill health of indigenous individuals until now. It addresses the need for the government to take appropriate measures to resolve the problems that are being faced by the people even today. The document also intakes the need for providing palliative care services that are acceptable in accordance with the cultural aspects of the indigenous groups under question. Contribution to the Topic: The media link has contributed largely to the topic as it highlights the statistics involved, the problems that cause the problem of cancer among indigenous groups and the measures that are being taken by the government. Through the research that was carried out by the authors of the paper, it was realized that the government has taken very minimal measures until now and there is a dire need to focus on enlightening the people and offering serious health care services to the indigenous groups. Since there is an absence of suitable detection measures to encounter cancer, the screening processes should be tightened and the people should be educated about the need for improving their health conditions. Personal Reflection: This academic journal was a great read as it produced an excellent insight into the whole problem of growing number of cancer cases among the indigenous groups in the five primary regions of Australia. Though the country has been termed as that of a developed one, it has not been able to take care of the basic health care services that are required by certain important sections of the society. The government needs to focus on improving the screening processes and providing palliative care that is culturally approved by the groups. However, the authors could have also discussed the varied factors that have restricted the indigenous people from taking treatment up until now. If the authors would have highlighted these factors, the research could have assisted the government in further improving the overall structure of the policies and programs that they have launched to help the indigenous groups today. Media Item 2: https://www.doctorportal.com.au/mjainsight/2016/45/lifestyle-cancers-in-indigenous-australians-on-the-rise/ Title: Lifestyle Cancers in Indigenous Australians on the Rise. Publication: MJA Insight Authors: Mackee, 2016 Summary: Mackee, 2016 has discussed the taken a brand-new approach to foresee the reasons for the growing number of cancer cases in Australia and its indigenous population. The author has laid the blame on the problems in the lifestyle of indigenous people. Earlier, the increase in cancer cases due to lifestyle issues were more prominent among the non-indigenous groups; however, in accordance with the statistics that Mackee was able to collect, the theory has taken a new shape recently. The author also mentions the statistics and their comparisons that have been done to derive the conclusion of lifestyle causing cancer problems among indigenous people today. A record of 84% higher number of lung cancer were registered among indigenous. Certain other statistics include a higher incidence of cancer of head and neck, liver and cervical to be that of 325%, 366% and 120% respectively. Based on the comparisons made during 5 years, Mackee also concluded that the survival ration has been pretty low a mong indigenous people. The author has not just highlighted statistics, but has also added links to the strategies that can be adopted to reduce the number of cases. A startling fact was the increase in infant mortality rates due to cancer. Towards the end, Mackee has written about the need to provide better health care services to enable indigenous people to live in peace and with a head held higher. Link to Unit Objectives: The article can be linked to Module 3 Topic 1 firstly. Since the topic features the lifestyle and culture of the indigenous people and how it is leading to cancerous situations, it can be linked to that particular module. Secondly, Module 2 Topic 1 can also be related to the subject, as the media discussion under this section focuses on how the absence of appropriate health care services have been affecting the indigenous people in Australia today. The resources are scarce as compared to the ones that are available for non-indigenous people in the country. Module 1 Topic 1 also fits in this criterion of achievement of unit objectives as talking about the health of indigenous people and their problems has been clearly discussed. Contribution to the Topic: The article has contributed in understanding one of the primary causes of cancer in the indigenous people. The link has been able to provide some startling facts and statistics recorded in 2016 about the types of cancers that are prevalent due to the problems in the lifestyle of the people today. It has also made a contribution by providing an insight into the strategies that can be used by government and people to alter their conditions and lifestyles to make their place a better place to live in. The articles contribution is also noteworthy as there is a highlight on the other health factors that are a cause of worry for the people in the indigenous regions in the country today. Alcohol and tobacco has been termed as the primary cause of growing cancer numbers in the country. Personal Reflection: The article had helped in getting a closer look at the situation of cancer among the indigenous people from the point of the view of the latest statistics. It was an informative experience to know about the causes that can cause cancer among all types of people and how it can be reduced if the right amount of awareness is spread among the people. I was glad to be able to get hold of this article on the web. It gave way to certain other links that suggested the strategies that could be adopted by the government and the people individually to prevent cancer, reduce mortalities and detect the conditions in time for people to get the right treatment. Media Item 3: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-03-22/the-unspoken-illness-cancer-in-aboriginal-communities/8373816 Title: The Unspoken Illness: Cancer in Aboriginal Communities. Publication: ABC News Authors: Miller, 2017 Summary: The report that was published by Miller this year on ABC News is among the most interesting ones that has been identified until now. Miller can be seen to have taken a lot of effort to collect interviews of indigenous people who had been facing the problem of cancer since past few years. Miller has pointed out the thought process of people relative to shame, fear and stigma that has become a hindrance for the people to admit to the symptoms and get enough medical care to get treated in time. The writer has certainly highlighted an important factor that the people are less likely to get a diagnosis from a medical practitioner and more likely to die of the disease that they are suffering from. It was noted during research that the indigenous people are highly scared and fear cancer. Hence, Miller went out of the way to interview some people who were suffering from cancer and intake their views on getting treatment and break the taboos that they have to live with each day. The case of one of the individuals was very disturbing where he accepted that he did not go to the doctor for nearly a year after getting the diagnosis. The individual named Rodney Graham was required to travel for at least 700 kilometers from his hometown to get the operation done. Rodney has now taken the initiative to convince others to take the treatment. This factor is indeed a positive step in the direction of the uplift of the people. However, the indigenous community needs more Rodney to be able to encounter the problem in a significant manner. Link to Unit Objectives: This source can be linked to the objective of Module 3 topics that discuss the influence of culture and thought processes of people in the indigenous community and how these factors are leading to increased number of health problems. The findings can also be seen to have a relationship with Topic 2 of the module which discusses the need for creating a working partnership among different communities for them to support each other and strengthening the overall society as a whole, from diverse perspectives. Contribution to the Topic: The media article was chosen as it formed a direct link to the topic that was chosen for this paper. It was able to get a direct comment from the indigenous people who were survivors, are struggling even now and from the family members of individuals who died from cancer. The media article has been able to justify the culture of the indigenous people and their though process directly from themselves. The article has also been an excellent reference to understand the practices that can actually work to lift the people out of the mess of cancer that they are getting deeper into. Miller points out that the people themselves need to support each other and spread awareness before the government can do the same. Interviews of certain individuals made it extremely clear that the people needed to get out of their fear, accept the problem and go out of the way to survive. It was also found that appropriate health care institutions are placed far away from the locations of indigenous people an d hence there is a direct need to reduce the distance by the government. The closer the doctors are, the higher would be the confidence of the people to reach them. Personal Reflection: Millers article brought me closer to the problems that the indigenous Australians are facing today. Since I was able to read the words of the people myself and see the pictures to understand their feelings up close, I was able to get closer to the culture and the thoughts of the people. However, it would have been a better experience, if Miller would have been able to cover the complete experience of one individual and document it for other people suffering in these regions to learn from. I am sure that real life stories of survivors would encourage people to stand up for their rights and get treatment in the nearest facilities. Once the government is able to get a little more confidence that the people have overcome their fears and are more open to treatment, it might make stronger programs to come closer to the indigenous groups and help them grow considerably. Media Item 4: https://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2016/04/11/indigenous-cancer-stats-worse-thought Title: Indigenous Cancer Stats Worse Than Thought Publication: SBS News Author: AAP, 2016 Summary: To summarize the media link that was identified under the SBS News official website, it was important to recall the statistics that were identified earlier in the paper. According to statistics suggested earlier, the amount of gap among the number of cancer patients that were recorded for indigenous groups and non-indigenous groups had reduced largely over the past few years. However, it was also learnt that there were many cases that did not come to light among the indigenous people. The article published by SBS News, clearly states that the number of individuals dying from cancer among the indigenous groups was eight times higher than those among the non-indigenous groups. The author has stated that the disparity is extremely high as compared to the earlier records of two times higher number of deaths in these regions. The article also points out that there was a large lack of resources in the current health care system to judge the right statistics and provide accurate information about cancer among the people. Among other findings, the high frequency of smoking was regarded as the primary cause of so many cancer instances and patients in the indigenous groups. Hence, the need for educating the people has also been attained by researchers who sympathize with indigenous people due to lack of awareness about products that they are using on a daily basis. An approach has also been suggested to make it easier to understand the largest number of people in Australia who actually need support to fight cancer and survive in the early stages of diagnosis, while they still can. Link to Models: The article can be related to a number of models that were discussed in this Unit. Module 2 Topic 1 is among the first with which it can be related to. The topic discusses the health problems that are faced by individuals who inhabited a country during the colonization periods. The indigenous or the aboriginal individuals who are facing the health issues are discussed in this article. The article also relates to many other topics that were discussed in the unit and helps in understanding with real life examples on the lack of basic health care being provided by the government to the indigenous people in the country. Contribution to the Topic: This article published by the SBS News has helped in bringing more focus on the number of deaths that are recorded due to cancer in the indigenous groups. It also talks about the absence of proper health care that can save the lives of indigenous people. It provides more focus on the resources to judge the real condition of the people in these regions. Personal Reflection: Since the article was recently published, I was able to confirm my conclusions on the absence of basic care of health services being provided to indigenous or aboriginals in Australia. Through the article, the increasing number of deaths were confirmed as well. The vitality of the situation is pretty clear and hence, the desperation of closing the increasing gap has become even more stressful. The journey of the indigenous people needs to be respected in a far more greater manner in comparison to that of the non-indigenous individuals. It is estimated that the research paper that I have compiled would be able to assist the government in identifying the right approaches that must be taken to protect the people from cancer along with the other health issues that are prominent. Conclusion To conclude the research, the media links shed immense light on the situation of the aboriginals and indigenous groups in Australia today. The country has witnessed a number of cancer cases in the past. In comparison to the treatment and health care made available for non-indigenous groups in the country, the indigenous people are far lacking behind. It was noted that the culture, the lifestyle and the absence of adequate health care services with respect to treatment and awareness were very scarce. Many cancer survivors have highlighted that they traveled a large amount of distance to get the basic care. It was also seen that the government has not been able to take the right number of steps or initiated programs that could help these individuals largely. Lastly, the number of deaths are also seen to be extremely high due to cancer disease being widespread among other health issues that the indigenous people are facing in five major regions of the country today. Hence, it is high ti me that enough number of steps are taken to support the people and uplift their spirits towards life. Reference List AAP. (2016). Indigenous Cancer Stats Worse Than Thought. SBS News. AIHW Cancer Australia. (2013). Cancer in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples of Australia: An Overview. Australian Government: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Cancer Australia. (2017). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Statistics. Australian Government: Cancer Australia. Condon, J. R., Garvey, G., Whop, L. J., Valery, P. C., Thomas, D., Gruen, R. and Cunningham, J. (2013). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and Cancer. Cancer Forum. Vol. 37(1). Mackee, N. (2016). Lifestyle Cancers in Indigenous Australians on the Rise. MJA Insight. Miller, B. (2017). The Unspoken Illness: Cancer in Aboriginal Communities. ABC News.